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UGC NET in Library and Information Science



UGC NET in Library and Information Science : NTA National Eligibility Test






Solved Question Papers of Competitive Entrance Exams for Librarian Jobs in Library and Information Science in India

NTA UGC NET





The National Eligibility Test (NET), also known as UGC NET or NTA UGC NET in Library and Information Science, is the test for determining the eligibility for the post of Assistant Professor and/or Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) award in Indian universities and colleges.


National Eligibility Test (NET) or the NTA UGC NET in Library and Information Science, is also an exam for determining the eligibility of Indian nationals for the eligibility for Assistant Professor only or Junior Research Fellowship & Eligibility for Assistant Professor both in Library and Information Science in Indian universities and colleges. It is also a desired qualification for appointment of the post of librarian in libraries of universities, colleges, and government institutions in India. It has a comprehensive syllabus covering all the areas of Library and Information Science. In this article is given Solved Question Papers of NTA UGC NET exam in Library and Information Science in India. Even if you are from a country other than India, study of these solved UGC NET examination questions and answers will improve your knowledge and understanding of Library and Information Science.


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UGC NET is considered as one of the toughest exams in India, with success ratio of merely 6%. Previously, the passing ratio was around 3% - 4%. Assistant Professors in private colleges may or may not be NET qualified but NET qualification is mandatory for universities & government colleges.

The Assistant Professor in universities & government colleges is governed under 7th pay Commission with entry pay of ₹ 57,700 excluding HRA, DA and other allowances making it one of the highest paying government job with 3% of annual increment. According to recent report of National Testing Agency (NTA), total 10,34,872 candidates have applied for December 2019 examination, covering 81 subjects, across 700 centres in 219 cities.

Until July 2018, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducted the UGC NET exam but from December 2018 onwards, NTA is conducting the UGC National Eligibility Test. As per the press-release by Indian Government, the exam would be conducted twice a year June month and December month, and it will be conducted in an online mode instead of offline mode.




Contents


  • UGC NET Library and Information Science: Qualification Procedure
  • UGC NET Library and Information Science: Jobs for NET Qualified Candidates
  • UGC NET Library and Information Science: Qualifying Criteria And Cut Off Percentages
  • UGC NET Library and Information Science: Reservations Quota in Junior Research Fellowships
  • NTA UGC NET Website
  • UGC NET Library and Information Science Old Syllabus
  • UGC NET Library and Information Science New Syllabus
  • UGC NET Library and Information Science Solved Question Papers
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science June 2013 Solved Examination Question Paper
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science June 2014 Solved Examination Question Paper
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science December 2015 Solved Examination Question Paper
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science August 2016 Solved Examination Question Paper
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science January 2017 Solved Examination Question Paper
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science November 2017 Solved Examination Question Paper
    • UGC NET Library and Information Science July 2018 Solved Examination Question Paper





UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE: QUALIFICATION PROCEDURE

UGC NET qualification is divided into the following steps:
  • Obtain minimum qualifying marks with aggregate 55% marks to General and 50% to others in master's degree.
  • The paper will be divided in two papers - Paper 1 & 2. The students would have to attempt total (both paper 1 &2) 150 questions in 3 Hours.
  • Those who score more than the cutoff marks in the exam would be declared qualified for JRF.
  • On the other hand, Top 6% candidates will be selected for each subject and category eligibility for Assistant Professor only if they haven't applied for JRF.
  • From net qualified students, a list of JRF will be prepared. The merit list will be prepared by using a formula.

Mode of Examination: The Examination shall be conducted as a Computer Based Test (CBT) only.

Pattern: The test will consist of two papers. Both the papers will consist of objective type, multiple choice questions. There will be no break between papers.

The total duration of the test is 03 hours (180 minutes) without any break. All the questions are compulsory.

Paper I: The questions in Paper I intend to assess the teaching/ research aptitude of the candidate. It will primarily be designed to test reasoning ability, reading comprehension, divergent thinking, and general awareness of the candidate.

The total questions will be 50. Each question will carry two marks. Hence, the total marks assigned to Paper I is 100.

Paper II: This is based on the subject, i.e. Library and Information Science in our case. The total questions will be 100. Each question will carry two marks. Hence, the total marks assigned to Paper I is 200.

There is no negative marking for an incorrect response. No marks will be given for questions Unanswered/Marked for Review.

If a question is found to be incorrect/ambiguous during the key challenge, only those candidates who have attempted the question and chosen one of the correct answers would be given the credit. Only for dropped question(s), if any, marks will be given to all the candidates.

The candidates may note that the syllabus has been modified and the new syllabus applicable from June 2019 onwards has also been notified through a public notice on the NTA website.

The number of candidates to be qualified (total slots or Eligibility for Assistant Professor) shall be equal to 6% of the candidates who appeared in both the papers of NET.

In order to be considered for ‘JRF and Eligibility for Assistant Professor’ and for ‘Assistant Professor’, the candidate must have appeared in both the papers and secured at least 40% aggregate marks in both the papers taken together for General (Unreserved) category candidates and at least 35% aggregate marks in both the papers taken together for all candidates belonging to the following reserved categories (viz., SC, ST, OBC (belonging to Non-Creamy Layer, PwD and Transgender).






UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE: JOBS FOR NET QUALIFIED CANDIDATES

University Grants Commission (UGC) announced in 2013 that the candidates who clear the NET successfully would be eligible for lucrative jobs in public sector undertakings (PSUs). PSUs can use UGC-NET scores for the recruitment process of the posts of executives in their organizations in disciplines like science (R&D), management, corporate communications, human resources, and finance. This step taken by the UGC would also increase the number of students taking the UGC-NET examination which has witnessed a gradual decline in recent years.

In the field of Library and Information Science. NET qualified persons have a higher chance of getting a job in this field.






UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE: QUALIFYING CRITERIA AND CUT OFF PERCENTAGES

UGC NET Procedure and Criteria for the declaration of result steps:
  • Obtain minimum qualifying marks with aggregate 55% marks to General and 50% to others in master's degree.
  • The paper will be divided into two papers: Papers 1 and 2. The candidates would have to attempt a total of (both papers 1 and 2) 150 questions in three hours.
  • UGC NET qualifying cut off marks for General category is 40% in Paper I and II while the qualifying marks for SC/ST/OBC-NCL/PwD/Transgender categories is 35% in Papers I and II.
  • Amongst those candidates who have obtained Minimum marks a merit list will be prepared subject wise and category-wise using the aggregate marks of two papers secured by such candidates.
  • For lectureship, the aggregate cut off marks for General category is between 54 and 60, for OBC NCL it is 49–56, for SC/ST it is 45–54 and for EWS it is 48–58 (for all subjects).
  • On the other hand, Top 6% of candidates will be selected for eligibility of NET Lectureship. Simultaneously, a separate list for JRF would be prepared.
  • A separate merit list for the award of JRF will be prepared from amongst the NET qualified candidates figuring in the above merit list prepared.
  • Until 2018 UGC released the certificates but from December 2018 onward, NTA releases the UGC NET e-certificate and JRF award letter on its official website for the qualified candidates. Successful candidates would be able to download their e-certificates and award letters online at https://ugcnet.nta.nic.in/webinfo/public/home.aspx.





UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE: RESERVATIONS QUOTA IN JUNIOR RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS

Candidates clearing JRF exams are also eligible for the National Eligibility Test. UGC follows the Government of India's reservation policy, as per which a minimum of 27%, 10%, 15%, 7.5% and 3% of fellowships are reserved for the OBC (non-creamy layer), EWS, SC, ST and persons with disabilities (PWD).





NTA UGC NET WEBSITE

URL: https://ugcnet.nta.nic.in/webinfo/public/home.aspx 

Check this website frequently for the latest information, news, and notices about NTA UGC NET in Library and Information Science.


NTA UGC NET WEBSITE






UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE OLD SYLLABUS 

Unit I:
  • Information, Information Science, Information Society 
  • Information as a Resource / Commodity 
  • Information Transfer Cycle--Generation, Collection, Storage, and Dissemination 
  • Role of Information in Planning, Management, Socio-Economic Development, Technology transfer
  • Communication--Channel, barriers 
  • Intellectual Property Rights--Concept, Copyright, Censorship--Print and Non-print Media 
  • Library and Information Policy at the National Level.
Unit II:
  • Laws of Library Science 
  • Library Resource Sharing and Networking 
  • Library Movement and Library Legislation in India 
  • Library Extension Services
  • Library and Information Science Education in India 
  • Library and Information Profession
  • Library Associations in India, UK and USA--ILA, IASLIC, IATLIS, SIS, LA, ASLIB, SLA and ALA
  • Library Associations Organization at International Level--FID, IFLA and UNESCO
Unit III:
  • Sources of Information--Primary, Secondary and Tertiary--Documentary and Non-documentary
  • Reference Sources--Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, Geographical Sources, Biographical sources, Year Books/Almanacs, Directories and Handbooks, Statistical (salient features and evaluation)
  • Bibliographical Sources--Bibliographies, Union Catalogues, Indexing and Abstracting Journals (salient features and evaluations)
  • E-documents, E-books, E-journals
  • Databases--Bibliographic, Numeric and Full text--Evaluation
Unit IV:
  • Reference and Information Services, Referral Service
  • Bibliographic Service, Indexing and Abstracting Service, CAS, SDI, Digest Service, Trend Report
  • Online Services
  • Translation Services
  • Reprographic Services
Unit V:
  • Organization of knowledge/Information
  • Modes of formation of subjects
  • Library Classification--Cannon and Principles
  • Library Classification Schemes--DDC, UDC, and CC
  • Library Cataloguing--Cannons and Principles
  • Library Cataloguing Codes--CCC and AACR-II
  • Bibliographic Records--International Standards--ISBD, MARC and CCF
  • Indexing--Pre-coordinate,Post-coordinate)
  • Vocabulary Control--Thesaurus, List of Subject Headings 
  • Databases--Search Strategies, Boolean Operators
  • Knowledge Management
Unit VI:
  • Management--Principles, Functions, School of Thought
  • Planning, Organization Structure
  • Decision making
  • System Study--Analysis, Evaluation and Design
  • Collection Development--Books, Serials, Non-book Materials--Selection, Acquisition, Maintenance; ISBN, ISSN, Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP)
  • Human Resources Management--Manpower Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation, Training and Development, Staff Manual, Leadership and Performance Evaluation
  • Delegation of Authority
  • Financial Management--Resource Generation, Types of Budgeting, Cost and Cost Benefit Analysis
  • PERT, CPM
  • Library Buildings and Equipments
  • Performance Evaluation of Libraries/Information Centers and Services
  • Marketing Information Product and Services
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
Unit VII:
  • Information Technology--Components; Impact of IT on Society
  • Computers--Hardware, Software, Storage Devices, Input/Output Devices
  • Telecommunication--Transmission media, Switching systems, Bandwidth, Multiplexing, Modulation, Protocols, Wireless Communication
  • Fax, Email, Tele conferencing / video conferencing, Bulletin Board Service, Teletext, Videotex, Voice Mail
  • Networking--Concepts, Topologies, Types--LAN, MAN, WAN
  • Hypertext, Hypermedia, Multimedia, 
  • Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN), Open Systems Interconnections (OSI)
Unit VIII:
  • Library Automation--Areas of automation, Planning, Hardware and Software Selection, OPAC
  • Networks, ERNET, NICNET, DELNET, JANET, BLAISE, OCLC, INFLIBNET, 
  • INTERNET--Components, Services, Browsing--Web Browsers, Search Engines, Meta-Data, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • National and International Information Systems--NISSAT, NASSDOC, INSDOC, DESIDOC, INIS, AGRIS, MEDLARS, INSPEC
Unit IX:
  • Types of Research--Basic, Applied, Interdisciplinary
  • Research Design
  • Scientific Method, Hypothesis, Data Collection, Sampling
  • Methods of Research--Historical, Descriptive, Case Study, Survey, Comparative and Experimental
  • Statistical Methods, Data Analysis
  • Report Writing
  • Research Methods in Library and Information Science and Services
  • Bibliometrics
Unit X:
  • Types of Libraries--National, Public, Academic, and Special (Objectives, structures and functions)
  • Digital Libraries (Concept)
  • Virtual Libraries (Concept)
  • Types of Users, User Studies, User Education
  • Role of UGC in the growth and development of libraries and information centers in institutions of higher education in India 
  • Role of Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF)





UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE NEW SYLLABUS
   

Unit – I


1.      Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom. 
2.      Information Life Cycle - Generation, Collection, Storage and Dissemination.
3.      Role of Information in Planning, Management, Socio-economic, Cultural, Educational and Technological Development.
4.      Information Science - Relationship with other subjects, Information Society and Knowledge Society.
5.      Communication – Concept, Types, Theories, Models, Channels and Barriers; Trends in Scholarly Communication. 
6.      Information Industry - Generators, Providers and Intermediaries. 
7.      IPR and Legal Issues - Categories, Conventions, Treaties, Laws.
8.      Plagiarism: Concept and Types.
9.      Right to Information Act (RTI); Information Technology Act. 
10.  National Knowledge Commission; National Mission on Libraries.


Unit – II


1.    Historical Development of Libraries in India; Committees and Commissions on Libraries in India.
2.    Types of Libraries – Academic, Public, Special and National.
3.    Library Legislation and Library Acts in Indian States; The Press and Registration of Books Act; The Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act.  
4.    Laws of Library Science. 
5.    Library and Information Science Profession - Librarianship as a Profession, Professional Skills and Competences; Professional Ethics. 
6.    Professional Associations - National – ILA, IASLIC, IATLIS; International – IFLA, ALA, CILIP, ASLIB, SLA; Role of UGC, RRRLF and UNESCO in Promotion and Development of Libraries. 
7.    Library and Information Science Education in India.
8.    Library Public Relations and Extension Activities. 
9.    Type of Users - User Studies, User Education.
10.   Information Literacy - Areas, Standards, Types and Models; Trends in Information Literacy. 
           

Unit – III


1.      Information Sources - Nature, Characteristics, Types and Formats.  
2.      Sources of Information - Primary, Secondary and Tertiary; Documentary and Non-Documentary. 
3.      Primary Information Sources (Print and Electronic) - Journals, Conference Proceedings, Patents, Standards, Theses & Dissertations, Trade Literature.
4.      Secondary Information Sources (Print and Electronic) - Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Indexing & Abstracting, Statistical sources, Handbooks and Manuals.
5.      Tertiary Information Sources (Print and Electronic)- Directories, Year Books, Almanacs.
6.      Reference Sources - Bibliographical, Biographical, Educational, Language and Geographical.
7.      Electronic Information Resources - Subject Gateways, Web Portals, Bulletin Boards, Discussion Forums /Groups.
8.      Databases: Bibliographic, Numeric, Full text, Multimedia; Open Access Databases.
9.      Institutional and Human Resources.
10.  Evaluation of Reference Sources and Web Resources.


Unit - IV


1.           Community Information Services.
2.           Reference Service – Concept and Types; Referral Services
3.           Alerting Services - CAS, SDI, Inter Library Loan and Document Delivery.
4.           Mobile based Library Services and Tools – Mobile OPAC, Mobile Databases, Mobile Library Website, Library Apps, Mobile Library Instructions, Augmented Reality, SMS Alerts, Geo-Location, Reference Enquiry.
5.           Web 2.0 and 3.0 - Library 2.0- Concept, Characteristics, Components; Instant Messaging, RSS Feeds, Podcasts, Vodcasts, Ask a Librarian
6.           Collaborative Services- Social Networks, Academics Social Networks, Social Tagging, Social Bookmarking.
7.           Web – Scale Discovery Services
8.           National Information Systems and Networks: NISCAIR, DESIDOC, SENDOC,
ENVIS, INFLIBNET, DELNET, NICNET, ERNET, National Knowledge Network (NKN), Biotechnology Information System Network
9.           International Information Systems and Networks: INIS, AGRIS, INSPEC, MEDLARS, BIOSIS, ERIC, Patent Information System (PIS), Biotechnology Information System (BIS).
10.       Library Resource Sharing and Library Consortia – National and International. 



Unit - V


1.         Universe of Knowledge - Nature and Attributes; Modes of Formation of Subjects.
2.         Knowledge Organisation - Classification – Theories, Cannons, and Principles; Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS), Taxonomies, Folksonomy,
Trends in Classification.  
3.         Mapping of Subjects in Library Classification Schemes – DDC, UDC and CC.
4.         Knowledge Organisation: Cataloguing - Cannons and Principles; Centralized and Co-operative Catalogue; Library Cataloguing Codes: CCC and AACR - II. 
5.         Standards of Bibliographic Record Formats and Description – ISBD, MARC 21, CCF, RDA, FRBR, Bibframe.
6.         Standards for Bibliographic Information Interchange & Communication – ISO 2709, Z39.50, Z39.71.
7.         Metadata Standards: Dublin Core; MARC21, METS, MODES, EAD.
8.         Indexing Systems and Techniques: Assigned - Pre-coordinate; Post-Coordinate; Derived- Title-based; Vocabulary Control.
9.         Abstracting – Types and Guidelines.
10.     Information Retrieval System – Features, Components, Models and Evaluation.



Unit - VI

1.         Management - Principles, Functions and Schools of thought.
2.         Library and Information Centers Management - Book Selection Tools and Principles; Library Acquisition, Technical Processing, Circulation, Serial Control, Maintenance and Stock Verification; Preservation and Conservation; Hazards and Control Measures of Library Materials.
3.         Human Resource Management – Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Evaluation, Selection, Recruitment, Motivation, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal; Staff Manual.
4.         Financial Management in Libraries - Sources of Finance, Resource Mobilisation, Budgeting Methods; Cost Effective and Cost Benefit Analysis, Annual Reports & Statistics; Library Authority and Committee.
5.         Project Management - SWOT, PEST, PERT / CPM.
6.         Total Quality Management (TQM) - Concepts, Principles and Techniques, Six Sigma; Evaluation of Services of Libraries and Information Centers.
7.         Library Building, Furniture and Equipments; Green Library Building; Information Commons; Makers Space; Security and Safety.
8.         Management Information System (MIS), MBO, Change Management, Disaster Management, Crisis Management.
9.         Knowledge Management – Principles, Tools, Components and Architecture.  
10.     Marketing of Library Products and Services – Plan, Research, Strategies, Mix, Segmentation, Pricing and Advertising; Management Consultancy.



Unit - VII


1.    Computer Technology - Character Representation (ASCII, ISCII, Unicode); Computer Hardware, Software; Storage Devices; Input and Output Devices.
2.    Types of Software - System Software, Application Software.
3.    Programming Languages – Object Oriented, Procedural, High Level, Scripting; Web Languages. 
4.    Telecommunication - Transmission Channels, Mode, and Media, ISDN, PSDN, Multiplexing, Modulation, Standards and Protocols.  
5.    Wireless Communication – Media, Wi-fi, Li-fi, Satellite Communication, Mobile Communication.
6.    Computer Networks - Topologies, Types of Networks – LAN, MAN, WAN.
7.    Internet - Web browsers, WWW, E-mail; Search Engines, Meta and Entity Search engines.
8.    Internet Protocols and Standards – HTTP, SHTTP, FTP, SMTP, TCP/IP, URI, URL.
9.    Hypertext, Hypermedia, Multimedia, Video conferencing, Virtual Reality, Augmented Technologies.
10.   Data Security, Network Security, Firewalls, Cryptographic Techniques, Anti-virus software, Anti-spyware, Intrusion Detection System.



Unit – VIII


1.      Library Automation – Areas, Planning, Selection of Hardware and Software, Implementation and Evaluation; Standards for Library Automation.
2.      Barcode, RFID, QR Code, Biometric, Smartcard: Features and Applications. 
3.      Digitization – Planning, Selection of Materials, Hardware, Software, Process, Issues.
4.      Digital Library: Genesis, Characteristics, Types, Architecture; Standards, Formats and Protocols, DOI.
5.      Digital Preservation - Need, Purpose, Standards, Methods, Techniques, Projects (National and International). 
6.      Digital Library Initiatives – National and International. 
7.      Institutional Repositories - Need, Purpose, Types and Tools; Institutional Repositories in India; ROAR, DOAR, SHARPA-ROMIO.
8.      Content Management Systems – Architecture, Data Integration, CMS Software – Selection, Implementation and Evaluation.
9.      Application of Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems and Robotics in Libraries; Social Mobile Analytics Cloud (SMAC); Cloud Computing.
10.  Ontology – Tools (RDF, RDFS, Potege); Semantic Web, Linked Data, Big Data, Data Mining, Data Harvesting.



 Unit – IX


1.      Research - Concept, Purpose, Functions, Scope and Ethics; Types of Research – Basic and Applied, Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary. 
2.      Research Methods: Historical, Descriptive, Experimental and Delphi. 
3.      Research Design - Selection of Research Problem, Review of Literature; Formulation of Research Problem; Hypothesis – Formulation, Types and Testing; Sampling Techniques.
4.      Methods of Data Collection: Questionnaire, Interview, Observation, Library Records, Scales and Checklist.
5.      Data Analysis and Interpretation - Presentation of Data; Statistical Methods/ Techniques. 
6.      Statistical Packages – Spreadsheet, SPSS, Bibexcel, ‘R’ Statistics. 
7.      Research Report Writing and Citation Tools – Structure, Style, Contents, Guidelines; Style Manuals; Online Citation Tools; Reference Style Management Tools; Antiplagiarism Tools; Evaluation of Research Report. 
8.      Metric Studies in LIS - Bibliometrics, Scientometric, Webometrics, Altmetrics;  9. Impact Factors – Journal, Institutional and Authors;  h-Index, g-Index,  i10 Index.
10. Trends in Library and Information Science Research. 



Unit –X


1.      Academic Library and Information System. 
2.      Public Library and Information System. 
3.      Special Library and Information System.
4.      Health Science Library and Information System. 
5.      Corporate Library and Information System.
6.      Agricultural Library and Information System. 
7.      Engineering and Technological Library and Information System. 
8.      Archive, Museums and Oriental Libraries.
9.      Community Information System. 
10.  Information Services and System for Persons with Disability, Children and Women. 





UGC NET LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS

We will be updating this section gradually with the solved question papers of UGC NET in Library and Information Science.

These questions and answers of UGC NET/JRF will also be helpful in the preparation of other exams in Library and Information Science, such as State Level Eligibility Test (SLET) of different states along with other job related competitive examinations conducted by DSSSB, KVS, NVS, MPPSC, RSMSSB for various posts in India.



UGC NET Library and Information Science June 2013 Solved Examination Question Paper



UGC NET Library and Information Science June 2014 Solved Examination Question Paper



UGC NET Library and Information Science December 2015 Solved Examination Question Paper



UGC NET Library and Information Science August 2016 Solved Examination Question Paper



UGC NET Library and Information Science January 2017 Solved Examination Question Paper



UGC NET Library and Information Science November 2017 Solved Examination Question Paper



UGC NET Library and Information Science July 2018 Solved Examination Question Paper







SEE ALSO
  • Library and Information Science Questions Answers QuizzesLibrary and Information Science Questions Answers Quizzes (LIS Quiz) is a collection of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and Quizzes covering all the areas of the Library and Information Science. Questions on similar subjects are grouped together so as the give a clear understanding of the subject. For example, questions on the Library of Congress Classification (LCC) will be provided in one place. Under similar subjects, e.g. LCC, basic questions are given first which is followed by advanced level questions. This collection of questions will act not only as a question bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the competitive exams (e.g. UGC-NET) and interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world.




REFERENCES
  1. National Testing Agency. https://www.nta.ac.in/collegeexam
  2. Wikipedia. National Eligibility Test. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Eligibility_Test
  3. UGC NET July Result 2018 Highlights. https://indianexpress.com/article/education/ugc-net-2018-live-results-declared-at-cbsenet-nic-in-check-now-5284808/
  4. Timesnownews, "UGC NET December 2018 Exam Date announced, NTA to start applications from September 1, 2018 on nta.ac.in," https://www.timesnownews.com/education/article/ugc-net-december-2018-exam-date-announced-nta-to-start-applications-from-september-1-2018-on-nta-ac-in/273159 (accessed August 22, 2018)




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