Tuesday, August 21, 2018

Library and Information Science Encyclopedia

Library and Information Science Encyclopedia

Library and Information Science Encyclopedia is an Online Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Sciences. It provides articles on librarianship studies, library science, information science, information technology, information and knowledge organization, and management. The encyclopedia includes articles on everything from traditional library terms to a vocabulary of modern avenues in information science and technology. Encyclopedia articles will include anything and everything required for an advanced study and reference on the Library and Information Science (LIS) topics, including biographies of famous librarians.

Library and Information Science Encyclopedia, which is currently under development, is envisioned to become an authoritative source for consultation and reference for any library or information profession related issue and a treasure hub of knowledge on Library and Information Science, which is open and free for all the library professionals worldwide. Library and Information Science Encyclopedia is expected to become an essential part of every library’s and librarian’s reference collection and will also be helpful to librarians, LIS i-School Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) & Ph.D. students, researchers, and IT professionals.

BACKGROUND

We wished to give the readers of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog our best and most informative articles. This lead to the creation of Library and Information Science Encyclopedia which is a collection of selected articles of our Glossary of Library & Information Science which are written in an encyclopedic manner providing in-depth details about the subject. The articles of the Library and Information Science Encyclopedia represent the best and most popular contents of the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog.

AIMS & PURPOSE

Library & Information Science Encyclopedia aims to support the purpose of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog, which is: To provide leadership for the development, promotion, and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all.

HOW TO USE THIS ENCYCLOPEDIA 

Individual entries of the Library and Information Science Encyclopaedia appear in the form of an article in the blog. These are compiled here with a link to the original article and an abstract. In many cases, the abstract itself will satisfy your information needs about the subject. For an advanced study, you may see the original article by clicking on the provided hyperlink. 

The word-by-word method of filing is used; acronyms and abbreviations, whether pronounceable or not, are treated as words and filed in the alphabetical sequence in their appropriate place. Words separated by a hyphen are treated as a single word. Where there is a choice between a full term and an acronym, the entry appears under whichever is likely to be more commonly found in the literature, with a reference from alternative expression.

QUALITY CONTROLS AND UPDATES

Encyclopedia articles are revised from time to time, as required, to present the most up-to-date information on the subject. At the same time, new articles are continuously being added to the encyclopedia.

THE FUTURE

We plan to open the Library and Information Science Encyclopaedia to the LIS experts to contribute new and update individual articles.





LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ENCYCLOPEDIA

  • Access Point - A name, term, code, heading, word, phrase etc., a unit of information representing a specific entity that can serve as a search key in information retrieval, under which a library catalog or bibliographic database may be searched and library materials may be identified and retrieved ... ... ...
  • Acquisitions - Acquisitions or Library Acquisitions is the process of selecting and acquiring selected materials for library and information centers in all formats including digital items and maintaining the necessary records related to acquisitions. First, the selections of materials are done according to the collection development policy of the library. It involves pre-order bibliographic searching of the library catalog to avoid duplication of materials. Then the selected materials are acquired by ordering them for purchase, exchange, or gift. This is followed by receiving the materials, checking their quality, processing invoices, making payment to vendors or individuals, and maintaining the necessary records related to acquisitions ... ... ...
  • Assigned Indexing - If the terms are selected from the title or the text of a document and used without any alteration as index terms, then this is referred to as natural language indexing or derived indexing. If however, the selected terms are translated or encoded into authorized terms by the help of a prescribed list, then the indexing language becomes controlled or artificial. This process is called Assigned Indexing ... ... ...
  • Authority Control - Authority Control is a process that organizes bibliographic information in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a subject for each topic, called as authority record. Authority Record is a record which gives the authoritative form (the form selected for a heading) of a personal name, corporate name, family name, place name, uniform or preferred title, series title, subject, etc. in the library catalog or the file of bibliographic records, and are listed in an authority file containing headings of library items ... ... ...
  • Authority Record - Authority Record is a record which gives the authoritative form (the form selected for a heading) of a personal name, corporate name, family name, place name, uniform or preferred title, series title, subject, etc. in the library catalog or the file of bibliographic records, and are listed in an authority file containing headings of library items. To ensure consistency, an authority record is created for each authorized heading (authorized access point) for a proper name or a subject, etc. An authority record is made when a heading is established, i.e., authorized for use as the main entry (preferred title and, if appropriate, the authorized access point for the creator), an added entry, or subject entry, for the first time, while cataloging of a library item. Authority record may be in a printed or machine-readable form ... ... ...
  • Best Quotes About Libraries Librarians and Library and Information Science - Top 29 Most Beautiful Quotations About Libraries, Librarians, Cataloging, Classification, Catalogers, and Library and Information Science Important Topics. Famous quotes describing why libraries and cataloging important and librarians and catalogers indispensable ... ... ...
  • BIBFRAME - BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community ... ... ...
  • Cataloger's Reference Directory - 100+ Most Important Cataloging Tools and Resources for Cataloging and Metadata Librarians and Catalogers. Cataloger's Reference Directory is a collection of top free and paid cataloging and bibliographic metadata resources. It includes sources for descriptive cataloging, subject cataloging, authority control, classification, subject headings, subject indexing, and metadata description ... ... ...
  • Cataloging - Cataloging or Library Cataloging is the process of creating and maintaining bibliographic and authority records of the library catalog, the database of books, serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, computer files, e-resources etc. that are owned by a library. The catalog may be in tangible form, such as a card catalog or in electronic form, such as online public access catalog (OPAC). The process of cataloging involves two major activities, viz. Descriptive Cataloging and Subject Cataloging. In Descriptive Cataloging, we describe details of library resources, such as the name of creator(s), contributor(s), titles, edition, publication, distribution, date, physical description, series etc. Two popular standards for Descriptive Cataloging are Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR) and its successor Resource Description and Access (RDA). Subject cataloging involves subject analysis of the resource and assignment of classification numbers using schemes such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and providing subject headings using schemes such as Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) ... ... ... 
  • Chain Indexing - Chain Indexing or Chain Procedure is a mechanical method to derive subject index entries or subject headings from the class number of the document. It was developed by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. He first mentioned this in his book “Theory of Library Catalogue” in 1938. In Chain Procedure, the indexer or cataloguer is supposed to start from where the classifier has left. No duplication of work is to be done. He/she has to derive subject headings or class index entries from the digit by digit interpretation of the class number of the document in the reverse direction, to provide the alphabetical approach to the subject of the document. Ranganathan designed this new method of deriving verbal subject heading in 1934 to provide the subject approach to documents through the alphabetical part of a classified catalog... ... ... 
  • Citation Indexing - A citation index is an ordered list of cited articles along with a list of citing articles. The cited article is identified as the reference and the citing article as the source. The index is prepared utilizing the association of ideas existing between the cited and the citing articles, as the fact is that whenever a recent paper cites a previous paper there always exists a relation of ideas, between the two papers ... ... ...
  • COMPASS - PRECIS  was intended to be a complete subject statement in a form suitable for a printed bibliography, and this was not necessarily the best format for online searching. Its complex system of coding and role operators served to produce the output strings for printing which appear to be unnecessary in an online system. It did not appear to make any difference whether a concept is coded with the role operator (1) or (2). Place name was treated in several ways with the role operators (O), (1), (5) and occasionally (3) as part of the subject string. The use of role operators in such a manner was not of much help for online searching. In 1990, it was decided to revise UKMARK and to replace  PRECIS  by a more simplified system of subject indexing in order to reduce the unit cost of cataloguing of the British Library. As a result, Computer Aided Subject System (COMPASS) was introduced for BNB in 1991 and PRECIS  was dropped ... ... ...
  • Date of Publication - A date of publication is a date associated with the publication, release, or issuing of a document. The date of publication is the year in which the edition, revision, etc., described in the edition area was published. If there is no edition area, the date of the first publication of the edition to which the item belongs is considered the publication date ... ... ...
  • Derived Indexing - We have to encode the subject of a document in order to place the document itself or our records of it in our store. This means that we must, in the same way, be able to specify the subject. Generally, an indexer neither has time to read all the documents added to the stock nor has enough understanding about them.  He, therefore, uses short cuts-like: the contents page, preface or introduction, or publishers blurb on the book cover; or an abstract if we are looking at a journal article or technical report; or the claims for a patent specification ... ... ...
  • Descriptive Cataloging - Descriptive Cataloging includes recording the attributes of a library item, such as the name of author(s), contributor(s), title, edition, publisher, distributor, date, the number of pages, its size, name of series, etc. Descriptive Cataloging enables the user to find and identify a book, by the name of the author, the title, variant titles, etc. ... ... ...
  • Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) - The Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) is a draft date-time standard initiated by the Library of Congress with the intention of creating more explicit date formatting and addressing date types that are not currently regulated by ISO 8601. The date time format ISO 8601 describes a number of date/time features, some of which are redundant and/or not very useful, on the other hand, there are a number of date and time format conventions in common use that are not included in ISO 8601 ... ... ... 
  • Five Laws of Library Science - The 5 Laws of Library Science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931 ... ... ...
  • Google Plus Collections & Communities for Librarians & Catalogers - Top Google+ Collections and Communities on Library and Information Science for Librarians and Catalogers to Follow in 2016. Are you on Google+? Do you know all of the Google+ Collections that you can follow and Google+ Communities that you can join for latest updates on Library and Information Science and Library Cataloging? Even if you are not on Google+ this article will present a compelling case for you to join Google+ to be updated of latest happenings in the fields of Library and Information Science and Library Cataloging ... ... ...
  • Index - The term 'index'  has been derived from the Latin word ‘indicare’ which means to indicate or to point out. Here it refers to guide to a particular concept in a document. Index is a systematic guide to items contained in a document or concepts derived from it. Items denote the name of the author, title, etc.; concepts may be like classification, cataloging, etc. To elaborate a bit more it may be said that an index is a systematic guide to the items of published literature in a collection or concepts derived from a collection. The purpose of an index is to locate and retrieve the needed items or concepts in a collection. An index is consist of entries. Each entry is a unit of an index. These entries are arranged in a systematic order ... ... ...
  • ISO 8601 - ISO 8601 describes an internationally accepted way to represent dates and times using numbers. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data are transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times. When dates are represented with numbers they can be interpreted in different ways. For example the date of writing of this glossary entry, 05/07/16 could mean May 7, 2016, or July 5, 2016. On an individual level this uncertainty can be very frustrating, in a business context it can be very expensive. Organizing meetings and deliveries, writing contracts and buying airplane tickets can be very difficult when the date is unclear. ISO 8601 tackles this uncertainty by setting out an internationally agreed way to represent dates: YYYY-MM-DD. For example, May 7, 2016, is represented as 2016-05-07 ... ... ...
  • Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA) - In the Key-Term Alphabetical index, keywords are arranged side by side without forming a sentence. Entries are prepared containing only keywords and location excluding the context ... ... ...
  • Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC) - The acronym KWAC also stands for Keyword and Context. The KWAC system provides for the enrichment of the keywords of the title with additional significant words taken either from the abstract f the document or its contents. Since titles do not always represent the contents of a document fully, the enrichment minimizes this limitation. The problem of false retrieval, which is inherent in a purely title based indexing system, is solved to some extent ... ... ...
  • Keyword in Context (KWIC) Indexing - Keyword in Context Indexing system is based on the principle that the title of the document represents its contents. It is believed that the title of the document is one line abstract of the document. The significant words in the title indicate the subject of the document. a KWIC index makes an entry under each significant word in the title, along with the remaining part of the title to keep the context intact. The entries are derived using terms one by one as the lead term along with the entire context for each entry ... ... ...
  • Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) - In KWOC system, keyword or the access point is shifted to the extreme left at its normal place in the beginning of the line. It is followed by the complete title to provide complete context. The keyword and the context are written either in the same line or in two successive lines ... ... ...
  • Libhub Initiative - The Libhub Initiative aims to raise the visibility of Libraries on the Web by actively exploring the promise of BIBFRAME and Linked Data. The objective of The Libhub Initiative is to publish BIBFRAME resources to the Web, cross-link resources which are common among libraries, and, through cross-linking improve the ability for people to discover these resources on the open Web. Ultimately, the goal is that users would then be able to click on appropriate resources and be taken back to the library’s catalog. Libraries and memory organizations have rich content and resources the Web can't see or use today -- effectively making them dark collections and invisible archives. Imagine if libraries could represent themselves together in a way the Web could see and understand. This unified voice and utility is among the core promises of BIBFRAME and the Linked Data in Libraries movement. BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community ... ... ...
  • Librarian - A librarian is a person who is in charge of or works professionally in a library and is responsible for its management and services. The librarian takes care of the library and its resources. Typical job of a librarian includes managing collection development and acquisitions, cataloging, collections management, circulation, and providing a range of services, such as reference, information, instruction, and training services, etc. Librarians are trained in library and information science and are engaged in providing library services, usually holding a degree in library science. In the United States, the title Librarian is reserved for persons who have been awarded the ALA-accredited Master of Library and Information Science or MLIS degree or certified as professionals by a state agency. In a small library, such as a school library a single librarian may be responsible for managing the overall functions of the library but big libraries, such as a large academic library may have much staff to carry out different functions of the library depending on their qualifications, expertise, and functional specializations, e.g. acquisition librarian, archivists, cataloging librarian, electronic resources librarian, metadata librarian, reference librarian, serials librarian, systems librarian, etc. Based on the type of the library served, librarians may be classified as a school librarian, academic librarian, special librarian, etc. The increasing role of technology in libraries has a significant impact on the changing roles of librarians. A 21st-century librarian is required to be very much updated of technological changes. New age librarians are making greater use of emerging technologies in the library management and services to make it more popular and useful among the patrons. New age librarians are not mere bookworms, they are high-tech information professionals, and clever communicators, helping patrons dive in the oceans of information available in books and digital records ... ... ... 
  • Library and Information Science - Library and Information Science (LIS) is an interdisciplinary domain concerned with creation, management, and uses of information in all its forms. Taught in colleges and universities at the undergraduate and graduate levels and a subject of research in both industry and academia, LIS brings together a variety of theoretical approaches. Its focus is on representations of information—the documentary evidence of civilization—as well as on the technologies and organizations through which information becomes accessible. The research domain is young, beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, but its roots lie in the nineteenth century. LIS represents the intersection of library science, information science (originally called documentation), and communications. The first, library science, has sought to solve the problems of organizing and providing access to collections of materials. The second, information science, seeks to understand the properties of information and how to manage it. Aspects of the field of communication, always a facet of the first two, became interwoven with both as library science and information science matured and increasingly intersected with one another ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science Articles and News - Top 200 Most Fantastic Library and Information Science Articles and News Every Librarian Must See ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science - Did You Know? - Important information and facts to remember covering all the areas of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology related to libraries and library management. This collection of pieces of information in LIS will act not only as a ready reference knowledge bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the competitive exams and interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world ... ... ... 
  • Library and Information Science Dissertations and Theses - Best Reference Sources for Doctoral and Master's Dissertations and Thesis in Library and Information Science; LIS Ph.D. and MLIS Thesis and Dissertations. General reference databases are listed first which is followed by the repositories and digital libraries of individual countries and universities. It also provides information on the online availability of electronic theses in the library and information science through centrally-maintained digital repositories which not only ensure easy access and archiving of doctoral theses but will also help in raising the standard and quality of research ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science History On This Day - First part is "Library and Information Science History On This Day" which lists important dates, occasions, and events for libraries and librarians "by day". This is followed by a "calendar" titled "On This Day - Library History". The last part is "Library and Information Science History Timeline" which lists important events and occasion "by year grouped by century" in the history of Library and Information Science ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science Infographics - Top 10 Excellent Infographics About Libraries Librarians and Library and Information Science ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science Portal - LIS Portal is a web portal featuring interesting stories from the Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog and other important sources ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science Tweets - Top 10 Excellent Twitter Tweets About Libraries Librarians and Library and Information Science ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science Questions Answers Quizzes - Questions covering all the areas of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology related to libraries and library management. This collection of questions will act not only as a question bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world ... ... ...
  • Library and Information Science Videos - Top 200 Most Fantastic Library and Information Science Videos Every Librarian Must See. Library and Information Science Videos is an initiative of Librarianship Studies & Information Technology blog to showcase the finest LIS videos for librarians, catalogers, metadata, archives, and knowledge professionals. The videos are sourced from Librarianship Studies & Information Technology YouTube Channel which are organized based on the categories (or labels) of Librarianship Studies blog ... ... ...
  • Library Circulation - Library Circulation is the function of lending library materials (books, serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, etc. that are owned by a library) to the users of the library. Library Circulation includes checking out library materials to library users, renewing the borrowed items, reserving checked out items for the patron, checking in materials returned, checking the materials for damage at the time of return, if found damaged then giving that to responsible staff for repair and when repair is not possible then replacement, renewal of materials, receiving payment of fines for damaged and overdue materials and payment for subscription to the library and other charges, maintaining order in the stacks by re-shelving the library materials by call number given by classification system, such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system. There is a Circulation Desk, a long counter usually located at the main entrance of the library to carry out library circulation activities. It is the service point to register for the library card, check out, renew, and return library materials. Library staff at circulation desk also provides basic search and reference services in the use of library and placement of information resources ... ... ...
  • Library Classification - Classification or Library Classification or Book Classification or Bibliographic Classification is the process of arranging, grouping, coding, and organizing books and other library materials (e.g. serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, manuscripts, computer files, e-resources etc.) on shelves or entries of a catalog, bibliography, and index according to their subject in a systematic, logical, and helpful order by way of assigning them call numbers using a library classification system, so that users can find them as quickly and easily as possible. Call number consists of a class number providing class designation, a book number providing author representation, and a collection number denoting the collection to which it belongs. In ordinary classification, we deal with the arrangement of ideas and the objects in a systematic order. But in library classification, we are concerned with documents, and the aim is to arrange these in the most helpful and permanent order. Similar to knowledge classification systems, bibliographic classification systems group entities that are similar and related together typically arranged in a hierarchical tree-type structure (assuming non-faceted system; a faceted classification system allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways) ... ... ...
  • Library of Congress Classification - The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It was developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to organize and arrange the book collections of the Library of Congress. Over the course of the twentieth century, the system was adopted for use by other libraries as well, especially large academic libraries in the United States. It is currently one of the most widely used library classification systems in the world. The Library's Policy and Standards Division maintains and develops the system¹. In recent decades, as the Library of Congress made its records available electronically through its online catalog, more libraries have adopted LCC for both subject cataloging as well as shelflisting ... ... ...
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) - Library of Congress Subject Headings is the list of headings produced from the subject authority file maintained by the United States Library of Congress for use in bibliographic records, and published annually. It is popularly known by its abbreviation as LCSH and is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase subject authority file. LCSH is a multidisciplinary vocabulary that includes headings in all subjects, from science to religion, to history, social science, education, literature, and philosophy. It also includes headings for geographic features, ethnic groups, historical events, building names, etc. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is the most widely used subject vocabulary in the world. It is the model for many other vocabularies in English and other languages, and has been translated into numerous languages. The strongest aspect of LCSH is that it represents subject headings of the Library of Congress, the national library of United States, one of the richest of national libraries of the world. The administrative and managerial machinery of LC, has made it possible for LCSH to stand out as an undisputed leader. LCSH is also used as indexing vocabulary in a number of published bibliographies ... ... ...
  • Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) - The Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) is the master’s degree required for the profession of library science, librarianship, and library service. It is required for the position of a librarian in libraries and information resources centers. Various library schools, i-schools grant degrees under different titles, like Master of Library and Information Studies (MLIS), Master of Library Studies (MLS), Master of Science in Library Science (MSLS), M.S. M.A. or M.Sc. in Information Science.
  • Other Title Information - Other Title Information is information (words or phrases, e.g. a subtitle) that appears in conjunction with, and is subordinate to, the title proper of a resource. Other Title Information is a statement appearing on the item that provides additional information about the nature of the item, its purpose, scope, form (e.g., a biography), genre (e.g., a mystery novel), contents (e.g., conference papers) or subject. It may include any phrase appearing with a title proper that is indicative of the character, contents, etc., of the resource or the motives for, or occasion of, its production, publication, etc. In the bibliographic record, Other Title Information is transcribed following the whole or part of the title proper or parallel title to which it pertains. If the information is lengthy, it may be given in a note or may be abridged ... ... ...
  • P. B. Mangla - Biography of Professor P. B. Mangla, a living legend in the field of Library and Information Science in India. He served the University of Delhi for about thirty years as an outstanding teacher. He has a distinction of being the first and youngest Professor of LIS in India ... ... ...
  • Place of Publication - A place of publication is the place associated with the publication, release, or issuing of a resource or document. There are the special set of rules for transcription and recording of the name of the publisher in library cataloging standards, e.g., RDA rules for the place of publication is given in chapter 2 (RDA Rule 2.8.2) of Resource Description and Access (RDA). In Anglo-American Cataloging Rules 2nd edition (AACR2), rules for the date of publication, distribution etc. for books are given in chapter 2 (2.4C).
  • POPSI (Postulate-Based Permuted Subject Indexing) - The inherent weakness of chain indexing has been its dependence on a scheme of classification. Another weakness was its disappearing chain. In view of this situation, the information scientists at the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Banglore, directed themselves from these limitations; the Postulate Based Permuted Subject Indexing (POPSI) is the results of these efforts. It was developed by Ganesh Bhattacharya. POPSI does not depend on the Class Number but is based on Ranganathan’s postulates and principles of the general theory of classification ... ... ... 
  • Pre-Coordinate Indexing Systems - Nowadays most of the documents deal with complex and compound subjects, each comprising a number of components or concepts. The coordination of these component terms is either done at the input stage or at the output stage. The index in which the coordination of components (index terms) is done at the input stage, is known as a pre-coordinate index.  Coordination of index terms at the input stage means coordination of index terms at the time of preparation of the index by the indexer. In pre-coordinate indexing, a number of selected terms or keywords are coordinated by the indexer and the cards are prepared for display to the users. Examples: Ranganathan’s Chain Indexing, G. Bhattacharya’s POPSI, and Derek Austin’s PRECIS,  COMPASS,  etc. ... ... ...
  • PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System) - PRECIS is an acronym for PREserved Context Index System or PREserved Context Indexing System. PRECIS is a computer assisted pre-coordinate subject indexing system developed by Derek Austin in 1968 as a result of long research which the Classification Research Group (CRG) undertook to give a new general classification for information control. In 1969 British librarians Derek Austin and Peter Butcher issued PRECIS: A rotated subject index system, published by the Council of the British National Bibliography. This appears to be the first published report on an innovative method for adding subject data in the form of descriptors to the computerized MARC record. This system is considered as the most important development in alphabetical approach to subject specification in recent years. The system aims at providing an alphabetical subject index which is able to cater to the variant approaches of the users along with their context. In order to achieve this objective, the system arranges the components of a document,  into a significant sequence, thus, all the important components in the string are used as approach points. Simultaneously, the terms are displayed in such a fashion that every term is related to the next term in a context dependent way. Moreover, the system is amenable to computer operation, which further adds to the advantage of the system as the entries will be prepared and arranged automatically by the computer ... ... ...
  • Problems of Natural Language in Indexing - Derived indexing is based on the natural language of the documents which proves to be problematic sometimes in the Subject Indexing Process. These problems prompted to move towards the use of Assigned indexing. These problems can be categorized under two heads: Problems inherent in the language and Problems pertaining to relationships ... ... ...
  • Publisher's Name - Publisher's Name is the name of the publisher is the name of a person, family, or corporate body responsible for publishing, releasing, or issuing a document or resource. For early printed resources, printers and booksellers are treated as publishers. There are the special set of rules for transcription and recording of the name of the publisher in library cataloging standards, e.g., RDA rules for publisher's name is given in chapter 2 (RDA Rule 2.8.4) of Resource Description and Access (RDA). In Anglo-American Cataloging Rules 2nd edition (AACR2), rules for the date of publication, distribution etc. for books are given in chapter 2 (2.4D).
  • RDA Alternatives - In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as alternatives. Alternative guidelines and instructions in Resource Description and Access (RDA) provide an alternative approach to what is specified in the immediately preceding guideline or instruction. A cataloger can choose to follow the rule or the alternative. Example of RDA Alternatives: At RDA 2.3.2.9: Resource Lacking a Collective Title, the general instruction states: “If: the type of description chosen for the resource is a comprehensive description and the resource lacks a collective title then: record the titles proper of the parts as they appear on the source of information for the resource as a whole … …” Immediately after the examples, an alternative is given as: “Devise a collective title by applying the instructions … If considered important for identification or access, record the titles of individual parts as the titles proper of related manifestations …” If you observe the screen image of RDA Toolkit, just after the label Alternative there are icons that link to various policy statements. If you go to the LC-PCC PS for this alternative, it says: “LC practice/PCC practice for Alternative: Generally, do not apply.” So according to LC-PCC PS on the alternative instruction, the cataloger should not devise a collective title in this case ... ... ...
  • RDA Core Elements - Core elements in Resource Description & Access (RDA) are minimum elements required for describing resources. Core elements are a new feature of RDA which allowed for certain metadata elements to be identified as “required” in the cataloging process. The assignment of core status is based on attributes mandatory for a national level record, as documented in the FRBR/FRAD modules. At a minimum, a bibliographic description should include all the required core elements that are applicable. Core-ness is identified at the element level. Some elements are always core (if applicable and the information is available); some are core only in certain situations. Core elements are identified in two ways within RDA. The first is that all core elements are discussed in general, and listed as a group, in the sub-instructions of "RDA 0.6: Core Elements". In the separate chapters, the core elements are also identified individually by the label “CORE ELEMENT” at the beginning of the instructions for each element. They are clearly labeled in light blue at each core instruction in RDA Toolkit. If the status of an element as core depends upon the situation, an explanation appears after the “Core element” label ... ... ... 
  • RDA Exceptions - In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as exceptions. Some instructions are scoped as being applicable only to certain types of resources (such as serials). An exception is an instruction that takes precedence over the immediately preceding instruction and applies to a specific type of resource, condition, etc. Here in RDA Toolkit, a LC-PCC PS appears which suggests the LC practice is to apply the guidelines in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B)) for books published before 1801 and selected early 19th century resources instead of RDA rules. Unlike alternatives and options, exceptions are not subordinate to general instructions, therefore, RDA exceptions generally do not require policy statements, although some exceptional situations may require some additional considerations. Exceptions must be followed when applicable. They are provided when it is necessary to depart from a rule’s instructions because of a specific type of resource or situation ... ... ...
  • RDA Options - In Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules there are a number of guidelines and instructions that are labeled as options. Options appear in two forms in RDA, viz. optional additions and optional omissions. The optional addition of data that supplement what is called for in the immediately preceding instruction or the optional omission of specific data called for in the immediately preceding instruction. Hence, it can be said that optional instruction offers the opportunity to either supplement required data with additional information (metadata), or omit data from what is instructed in the preceding rules. Here it is important to note that each library or cataloging agency can decide when or whether to follow the options or just follow the rules in the immediately preceding instruction. They may choose to establish their own policies and guidelines on the application of the options or leave decisions on the use of options to the cataloger’s judgment ... ... ...
  • RDA Toolkit - RDA Toolkit is an integrated, browser-based, online product that allows users to interact with a collection of cataloging-related documents and resources including RDA: Resource Description and Access. RDA Toolkit is published by the RDA Copyright Holders, viz. the American Library Association, Canadian Federation of Library Associations, Facet Publishing, the publishing arm of CILIP: the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals.² ALA Publishing is responsible for the day-to-day management and development of RDA Toolkit ... ... ...
  • Resource - A work, expression, manifestation or item. The term includes not only an individual entity but also aggregates and components of such entities (e.g., three sheet maps, a single slide issued as part of a set of twenty, an article in an issue of a scholarly journal). It may refer to a tangible entity (e.g., a book, a DVD, an audiocassette, serials, sound recordings, moving images, cartographic materials, pamphlets, reports, newspapers, music scores, microfilm, microfiche etc. that are owned by a library) or an intangible entity (e.g., a website, blog, computer files, e-resources). In the area of descriptive cataloging, some terms or concepts have replaced older ones due to the adoption of RDA. One such concept is that of a resource. In Resource Description and Access (RDA) and most other modern cataloging texts, the terms resource and information resource have replaced references to library materials, information package, document, and other such words representing individual formats such as a book, videotape, map, and the like ... ... ...
  • Resource Description - Resource Description is a set of data recording and identifying an entity. It is the process or the product of creating a bibliographic or metadata record (a surrogate) or a brief representation containing essential attributes describing an information resource, based on established standards, such as Resource Description and Access (RDA) or Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2). Resource Description is that portion of the descriptive cataloging process in which elements that identify a resource are transcribed into a bibliographic record; also, the portion of the bibliographic record (i.e. descriptive data) that results from this process.
  • Resource Description and Access (RDA) - RDA stands for “Resource Description and Access” and is the title of the standard, that is the successor to AACR2. Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Resource Description & Access (RDA) is a set of cataloging instructions based on FRBR and FRAD, for producing the description and name and title access points representing a resource. RDA offers libraries the potential to change significantly how bibliographic data is created and used. RDA is a standard for resource description and access designed for the digital world. It provides (i) A flexible framework for describing all resources (analog and digital) that is extensible for new types of material, (ii) Data that is readily adaptable to new and emerging database structures, (iii) Data that is compatible with existing records in online library catalogs. RDA is a package of data elements, guidelines, and instructions for creating library and cultural heritage resource metadata that are well-formed according to international models for user-focused linked data applications.  RDA goes beyond earlier cataloging codes in that it provides guidelines on cataloging digital resources and places a stronger emphasis on helping users find, identify, select, and obtain the information they want. RDA also supports the clustering of bibliographic records in order to show relationships between works and their creators ... ... ...
  • Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources - 100+ Most Important Resource Description and Access (RDA) Tools and Resources for Cataloging and Metadata Librarians and Catalogers. "Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources" is a collection of top free and paid cataloging and bibliographic metadata resources ... ... ...
  • Statement of International Cataloguing Principles - ICP 2016 by IFLA Cataloguing Section and IFLA Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code ... ... ...
  • Subject Approach to Information in Libraries - Most of the users approach information sources not with names, who might have been responsible for their creation, but with a question that requires an answer, or a topic for study. Users seek documents or information on a particular subject. In order to make provision for this common approach, it is necessary to arrange documents on the shelf and entries in catalogs in such a way that items on a specific subject can be retrieved. In other words, it may be said that subject approach is very important in the access to and exploitation of documents in a library ... ... ...
  • Subject Cataloging - Subject Cataloging involves subject analysis of the resource and providing corresponding subject headings from a controlled vocabulary or subject heading list, such as Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Medical Subject Headings (MESH) and assignment of classification numbers using schemes such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Subject Heading is defined as the most specific word or group of words that captures the essence of the subject or one of the subjects of a book or other library material which is selected from a subject heading list containing the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) and assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database ... ... ...
  • Subject Heading - Subject Heading is defined as the most specific word or group of words that captures the essence of the subject or one of the subjects of a book or other library material (e.g. serial, sound recording, moving image, cartographic material, manuscript, computer file, e-resource etc.) which is selected from a subject heading list containing the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) and assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. Subject headings are also used in a bibliography and index ... ... ...
  • Subject Heading List - Subject Heading List is the printed or published list of subject headings which may be produced from the subject authority file maintained by an organization or individual. Subject heading list contain the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) that are assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. The controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval. Cross-references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject ... ... ...
  • Subject Headings Manual - Subject Headings Manual (SHM) provides guidelines to use Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The manual was originally conceived as an in-house procedure manual to aid subject catalogers at the Library of Congress in constructing and assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) in an accurate and consistent manner. SHM includes explanations of subject cataloging policy, procedures, and practices for the catalogers at Library of Congress in providing LCSH subject headings to bibliographic records and constructing new headings to be included in LCSH. Other libraries who wish to catalog in the same manner as the Library of Congress, as well as faculty at schools of library and information science who wish to teach Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) to their students, should follow the guidelines of the Subject Headings Manual (SHM) ... ... ...
  • Subject Indexing Process - Subject indexing is the process used for describing the subject matter of documents. Subject indexing involves assigning terms to represent what the document is about. Subject indexing is a crucial operation in the creation and maintenance of index file, as retrieval of information depends to a large extent on the quality of indexing. The process of subject indexing involves basically three steps: Familiarization => Analysis => Representation. The first step towards a successful index is familiarization. The indexer must become conversant with the subject content of the document. The most reliable way to determine the subject content is to read or examine the work in detail. It is always wise to look beyond the title for ascertaining the subject content of the document, e.g. table of contents, chapter headings, preface, introduction, opening phases of chapters and paragraphs, book jacket, etc. Reference sources may also be consulted and occasionally, subject specialists may have to be consulted, particularly when the subject matter is unfamiliar to the indexer ... ... ...
  • Title-Based Indexing - There is one part of a document in which authors themselves usually try to define the subject: the title. The title in itself is a one-line summary of a document and this serves as an index point, hence, title indexes came into force. This is very simple as the important terms representing the subject of the document are selected and rotated to prepare entries from the title, moreover, this could be very easily prepared using a computer. Examples of title indexes are KWIC (Key Word In Context, KWOC (Keyword Out of Content), and KEYTALPHA (Key-Term Alphabetical). It is important to note that the titles are not always provided in a manner to represent the subject, so title-based indexes are good only if the subject is clearly expressed in the words f the title Title-indexing is also referred to as Keyword indexing ... ... ...
  • Vocabulary Control - The term ‘vocabulary control’ refers to a limited set of terms that must be used to index documents, and to search for these documents, in a particular system. It may be defined as a list of terms showing their relationships and used to represent the specific subject of the document. An information system may help the user by explicitly assigning index terms (that is, words or notations) to the documents and controlling, at least in the case of alphabetical (word) systems, the  semantic and often the syntatic relationships between these index terms the words (which may be subject  headings or descriptors) are assigned from  recognized subject heading lists or thesauri, and the notations from recognized classification schedules, and thus use controlled vocabulary.  A controlled vocabulary is one in which there is only one term or notation in the vocabulary for any one concept. The Library of  Congress List of Subject Headings is an example of a controlled alphabetical vocabulary, and the Dewey Decimal Classification is an example of a notational vocabulary (By definition, all notational vocabularies must be controlled) ... ... ...
  • World Book and Copyright Day - On April 23 World Book Day is Celebrated - World Book Day or World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Days) is a yearly event on April 23rd, organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to promote reading, publishing, and copyright. In the United Kingdom, the day is recognized on the first Thursday in March. World Book Day was celebrated for the first time on 23 April 1995. In some countries, World Book Day is observed on different dates ... ... ...
  • Z39.50 - Z39.50 is a national and international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. It is a client-server, application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network. It is covered by ANSI/NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The National Information Standards Organization of the United States (NISO) relating to libraries begin with Z39. To use Z39.50, you will need either special software or have an ILS with Z39.50 capabilities. Z39.50 acts like a “back door” into a library catalog. In order to download another library’s records, that library has to allow Z39.50 access to its catalog. If it does, though, there is no fee to pay the library providing the record ... ... ...



TERMS OF USE
  • All librarians and information professionals may use information from Library and Information Science Encyclopedia for their writings and research, with proper attribution and citation. I would appreciate it if you would let me know, too!

AUTHOR
  • Salman Haider - Librarian Cataloger Author Blogger 

HISTORY
  • Last Updated: 2018-07-25
  • Written: 2018-03-04

FEEDBACK
  • Help us improve the Library and Information Science Encyclopedia. Contact us with your feedback. You can use the comments section below, or reach us on social media.
Library and Information Science Encyclopedia is widely discussed, appreciated, cited, referred, and hyperlinked. Some places where it is discussed and referred are given below.
    LinkedIn
    • P. B. Mangla, Former Professor, University of Delhi, Department of Library and Information Science, Tagore National Fellow, Government of India, Unesco Consultant, and Vice- President, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA ; The Hague ; 1985-1991) [May 29, 2018, posted in LinkedIn Group Information Science and LIS] -- This should be found useful by the LIS professional around the world. Congratulations.

    Thanks all for your love, suggestions, testimonials, likes, +1, tweets, and shares ...