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Five Laws of Library Science




The 5 Laws of Library Science is a theory proposed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1931, detailing the principles of operating a library system. Five laws of library science are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship. Many librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan conceived the Five Laws of Library Science in 1924. The statements embodying these laws were formulated in 1928. These laws were first published in Ranganathan's classic book entitled Five Laws of Library Science in 1931. These laws are:

  • First Law: Books Are For Use
  • Second Law: Every Reader His/Her Book
  • Third Law: Every Book Its Reader
  • Fourth Law: Save The Time Of The Reader
  • Fifth Law: The Library Is A Growing Organism

These laws of Library Science are the "fundamental laws" of Library Science. These are applicable to any problem in the areas of library science, library service, and library practice. These laws are like pot containing oceans. Prior to their enunciation, the subject of Library Science had no philosophy. These laws gave a philosophical base, guaranteeing an everlasting future to the subject of library science, the profession of librarianship, and the use of libraries. These laws have provided a scientific approach to the subject of library science. Even though S.R. Ranganathan proposed the Five Laws of Library Science before the advent of the digital age, they are still valid and equally relevant today.¹

Note
  • A corollary of the Fourth Law of Library Science is "Save the time of the staff"
  • In the present day context, the term "book" should be used in a broader context to mean a "Resource".


Five Laws of Library Science





Contents



  • First Law: Books Are For Use
    • Implications
      • Open Access
      • Location
      • Library Hours
      • Library Building and Furniture
      • Book Selection Policy
      • Library Techniques
      • Publicity
      • Library Staff
      • Reference Service
  • Second Law: Every Reader His/Her Book
    • Implications / Obligations
      • Obligations of the State
      • Obligations of the Library Authority
      • Obligations of Library Staff
      • Obligations of the Reader
  • Third Law: Every Book Its Reader
    • Implications
      • Open Access
      • Book Selection
      • Shelf Arrangement
      • Easy Accessibility
      • Cataloging
      • Reference Service
      • Publicity
      • Extension Service
  • Fourth Law: Save The Time Of The Reader
    • Implications
      • Open Access
      • Location
      • Shelf Arrangement, Classification, and Cataloging
      • Stack-Room Guides
      • Issue and Return
      • Reference Service
      • Documentation Service
      • Library Staff
  • Fifth Law: The Library Is A Growing Organism
    • Implications
      • Balanced Growth
      • Casting Off the Old (Obsolete) and Preserving Valuable Books
      • Choice of a Classification Scheme
      • Choice of a Catalog Code
      • Modernization
      • Staff
      • Library Building - Provision for Future
      • Safeguards
  • Variants of Five Laws of Library Science
  • Five Laws of Library Science Articles and News
  • Five Laws of Library Science Book by S.R. Ranganathan (Digitized Book)
  • Five Laws of Library Science Infographic
  • Five Laws of Library Science Quiz
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Spanish): Cinco leyes de la ciencia bibliotecaria
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (French): Cinq lois de la bibliothéconomie
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (German): Fünf Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Italian): Cinque leggi della scienza delle biblioteche
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Russian): Пять законов библиотечного дела
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Hindi): पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के पांच सिद्धांत
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Chinese): 图书馆学五定律
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Japanese): 図書館学の5つの法則
  • About Five Laws of Library Science (Portuguese): Cinco Leis da Biblioteconomia




FIRST LAW: BOOKS ARE FOR USE

A book is a guide, a friend, and a philosopher. A writer writes a book to communicate his thoughts. The primary purpose of writing, therefore, is that the thought it contains should be communicated. To do so it is necessary to put the books for use. The first law, therefore, truly demands that all efforts should be made to ensure that all the books kept in the library are used because it is created for use. The first law "Books are for use" places emphasis on the use of books rather than storage. Books were once kept in closed access in order to prevent theft, but this discouraged free use and prevented loaning. The first law of library science "books are for use" means that books in libraries are not meant to be shut away from its users.

The first law constitutes the basis for library services. Dr. Ranganathan observed that books were often chained to prevent their removal and that the emphasis was on storage and preservation rather than use. He did not reject the notion that preservation and storage were important, but he asserted that the purpose of such activities was to promote use. Without user access to materials, there is little value in these items. By emphasizing use, Dr. Ranganathan refocused the attention of the field to access-related issues, such as the library's location, loan policies, hours and days of operation, as well as the quality of staffing and mundane matters like library furniture, temperature control, and lighting.

First Law - Books are for Use is the ones of the Five Laws of Library Science that Ranganathan remarked as ‘trivial truism’ in his writing “Library Science and Scientific Method.”⁷ Trivial Truism refers to a statement of little value or importance that is obviously true and says nothing new or interesting. So here Dr. S. R. Rangangathan means to say that the First Law - Books are for Use is obviously true and understood. Ranganathan says in this work:

Before dealing with these factors, a word should be said about the remark that the First Law - Books are for Use - is a trivial truism. The first law of most of the science is equally so. For example, Newton’s first law of motion reads, “Every body preserves in its state of rest unless it is compelled to change that state by impressed forces.” Is this not a truism?

Implications
  • Open Access - Open access of books enhance their use. In this system, every reader is allowed to go to the shelves and choose the book of his interest. In case he does not find the desired book of his interest, he can choose some other from the shelves.
  • Location - A library should be situated near the central place. If it as an institutional library, then it should be situated near the center of the institutional complex. If it is a public library then it should be in the center of the city.
  • Library Hours - The first law demands that a library should be kept open for long hours, and during the hours which suits to its patrons most.
  • Library Building and Furniture - There should be a functional library building with pleasant, natural, and electrical light, soothing interior, good looking furniture, comfortable chairs, etc.
  • Book Selection Policy - Books should be purchased which are relevant to the needs of the readers. Books should be attractive such as it fills the reader with pleasure.
  • Library Techniques - Proper cataloging and classification of books are essential for promoting the use of books.
  • Publicity - The First Law demands wide publicity of each and every book of the library. For example, the librarian can bring out the list of new additions and latest arrivals through the Current Awareness Service (CAS) or Selective Dissemination of Information Services (SDI).
  • Library Staff - A library cannot come up to the expectation of the first law unless its staff is attentive and cheerful, and cares for the books and readers. Readers should be looked upon as customers. Some readers are shy and are not informed about the complex library techniques. The library staff should help such users to find their desired book. It will not only satisfy readers but also enhance library's use.
  • Reference Service - Reference service aims to establish the right contact between the right reader and right book at the right time. A collection of library resources would not be used fully unless the reference librarian makes effort to help the users to exploit the resources of the library. This personal service will lead to the greater use of books.


SECOND LAW: EVERY READER HIS / HER BOOK

The second law of library science is "Every Reader His / Her Book". This law implies that the "books are for use of all" or "books for all." The Second Law stressed on the democratization of the library where every reader has the equal right to get the book of his / her interest. The second law fixed some responsibilities or obligations of the state, the library authority, the library staff, and the readers. A library should serve all patrons, no matter their age, race, or economic status.

This law suggests that every member of the community should be able to obtain materials needed. Dr. Ranganathan felt that all individuals from all social environments were entitled to library service and that the basis of library use was education, to which all were entitled. These entitlements were not without some important obligations for both libraries/librarians and library patrons. Librarians should have excellent first-hand knowledge of the people to be served. Collections should meet the special interests of the community, and libraries should promote and advertise their services extensively to attract a wide range of readers.

The second law of library science "every reader his/her book" means that librarians serve a wide collection of patrons, acquire literature to fit a vast collection of needs, do not judge what specific patrons choose to read. Everyone has different tastes and differences and we should respect that.

The possible absence of a physical knowledge storage object doesn’t dilute the power of Ranganathan’s second principle; it is certainly relevant to media in all forms including the Internet.

Implications / Obligations
  • Obligations of the State - When we say "Every Reader His / Her Book" or "Books for All", the state or government automatically comes in picture. The state has a certain obligation to its citizens and one of these is to provide equal opportunity to read. Ranganathan has discussed obligations of the state under three head. (i) Finance--providing finance by giving grants and by levying library cess (Ranganathan's choice), (ii) Legislation--enacting library legislation, and (iii) Coordination--of activities to ensure "Books for All"
  • Obligations of the Library Authority - The second law has something to say to library authorities in respect to the selection of books and staff. A library has limited finance. It is therefore desirable to know the requirements of the readers before selecting the books. Similarly, library authority should select staff for their library with professional competence and missionary zeal.
  • Obligations of Library Staff - Library staff should be cooperative and service minded. Library staff should form a bridge between readers and books, only then every reader will have his/her book. When a reader enters a library, the library staff should approach him with a helping hand. Second Law strongly advocates user education program in libraries.
  • Obligations of the Reader - The Second Law expects the readers also to discharge some responsibilities. Readers should be disciplined and follow rules and regulations. Readers should restrain from cutting pages from books, keeping books beyond the due date, etc. All such acts amount to keeping other readers away from their books.


THIRD LAW: EVERY BOOK ITS READER

The Third Law prescribes Every Book its Reader. The emphasis is on the book. This law desires that every book in a library must find its reader. It implies that there should be maximum use of books by their users.

This principle is closely related to the second law, but it focuses on the item itself, suggesting that each item in a library has an individual or individuals who would find that item useful. Dr. Ranganathan argued that the library could devise many methods to ensure that each item finds its appropriate reader. One method involved the basic rules for access to the collection, most notably the need for open shelving.

The third law of library science "every book its reader" means a library's books have a place in the library even if a smaller demographic might choose to read it.

It is, therefore, necessary to adopt measures to ensure successful implementation of the demand of the Third Law. The factors that may be kept in view in this regard have been discussed below:

Implications
  • Open Access - It is one of the most effective ways to ensure that the maximum number of books are seen by the readers. It also happens sometimes that the reader to the shelves in search of a book and in the process of search select many more books.
  • Book Selection - Give full weightage to the tastes and requirements of the clientele of the library. Difficulties of the Third Law can be minimized by adopting a well-balanced book selection policy. If the right books are selected it will definitely find its readers
  • Shelf Arrangement - If the books are arranged so that the subjects get arranged according to the degree of mutual relationship, then each book would have a higher probability of getting its readers.
  • Easy Accessibility - Books should be placed within easy reach of the readers. It has been observed that the books within the comfortable reach of the readers are most frequently used. For easy accessibility, shelves should not be higher than 6.5 ft.
  • Cataloging - Proper cataloging of books is very important as even though there may be well planned and arranged books on the shelves but they are incapable merely by itself. Series entry and cross-reference entries are highly useful in drawing the attention of the readers. Analytical entries increase the chance of a composite book getting its reader.
  • Reference Service - A reference librarian should know about the world of books and try to find out a reader for every one of these. The reference librarian should act as a canvassing agent for each book.
  • Publicity - Publicity is a very powerful weapon to attract readers to the library and thereby to increase the chances of every book to find its reader. For example, the arrival of new books may be brought to the notice of the readers by displaying them, near the entrance of the library, or by communicating the readers through an e-newsletter or broadcasting information about them through the Twitter handle of the library.
  • Extension Service - The library attract readers by converting itself into a cultural and social center. A library does this by organizing exhibitions, musical concerts, a magic show, celebration of local and national festivals, etc. Once the people come to these functions, then the library can make an attempt to bring books and readers together.


FOURTH LAW: SAVE THE TIME OF THE READER

The Fourth Law says "Save the Time of the Reader." A library user must be assumed a busy person. It is essential to keep the reader satisfied and a reader is satisfied most if his/her time is saved, i.e., if he gets the needed service in minimum possible time.

This law is a recognition that part of the excellence of library service is its ability to meet the needs of the library user efficiently. To this end, Dr. S.R. Ranganathan recommended the use of appropriate business methods to improve library management. He observed that centralizing the library collection in one location provided distinct advantages. He also noted that excellent staff would not only include those who possess strong reference skills, but also strong technical skills in cataloging, cross-referencing, ordering, accessioning, and the circulation of materials.

The fourth law of library science "save the time of the user" means that all patrons should be able to easily locate the material they desire quickly and efficiently.

Implications
  • Open Access - In a closed access of books time is wasted unnecessarily. In open access, the time of the readers is saved. If open access is not there then the reader has to make the choice of the books through the searching of the library catalog. Then the reader requests the library staff the book which he has searched in the catalog. The staff searches the required book and if the staff is not able to trace the book, then the reader again needs to search the catalog. These problems can be avoided if open access is provided where the readers can themselves go to the shelves to search their book.
  • Location - The location of the library is of great importance. It must be centrally located so that it is conveniently accessible to the community served. For an institutional library, it should be in the center of the institution, for a public library it should be in the center of the city. Centrally located library saves the times of the users in visiting it.
  • Shelf Arrangement, Classification, and Cataloging - Proper classification schemes should be used in the library. Books should be arranged on shelves according to the classification number. Regular shelf rectification is also essential. In order to save the time of the readers, the library catalog should aim to provide different approaches to the users. It should include analytical entries for composite books.
  • Stack-Room Guides - To save the time of the reader, the library should provide an efficient system of stack room guides. It may be quite useful to keep it at the entrance of the stack room, the whole plan of the room indicating the position of the book racks and classes of books in them.
  • Issue and Return - Most readers want to read the book at home. For this, the library has to issue the books to the readers. Time-saving techniques for circulation to books should be used so that the user has not to spend more time in getting the book issued (or returned).
  • Reference Service - The reference staff establishes a contact between the book and the reader by providing Reference Service and Long Range Reference Services, thereby saving the time of the reader.
  • Documentation Service - A substantial time of readers is wasted in the literature search. The library should, therefore, undertake comprehensive or selective, as needed be, documentation services including SDI service to save the time of the reader.
  • Library Staff - Library staff should be cooperative. They should help the readers to find their document keeping in mind the message of the Fourth Law, i.e., to Save the Time of the Reader.


FIFTH LAW: THE LIBRARY IS A GROWING ORGANISM

The Fifth Law is "The Library is a Growing Organism." A library is a social institution and it will keep growing like an organism. A library will grow in terms of documents, readers, and staff. The nature of organic growth can be either growth as a body of a child or growth as of the body of an adult. The growth of a new library will correspond to that of a child growing in all aspects. In case of a service library, once its growth has reached the adult stage, the growth would be in terms of replacing old books by new books and new users will continuously replace old users.

This law focused more on the need for internal change than on changes in the environment itself. Dr. Ranganathan argued that library organizations must accommodate growth in staff, the physical collection, and patron use. This involved allowing for growth in the physical building, reading areas, shelving, and in space for the catalog.

The fifth law of library science "the library is a growing organism" means that a library should be a continually changing institution, never static in its outlook. Books, methods, and the physical library should be updated over time.

Implications
  • Balanced Growth - The collection should grow in all the areas of subjects keeping in view the needs and requirements of all the readers, as far as possible.
  • Casting Off the Old (Obsolete) and Preserving Valuable Books - Weed out old, obsolete, and unused books in order to provide space for new additions. However, librarians should take necessary steps to preserve valuable materials.
  • Choice of a Classification Scheme - We should use a scheme of classification, which is able to meet the onslaught of knowledge reasonably well.
  • Choice of a Catalog Code - We should use a catalog code which is able to provide treatment to all kinds of library materials yet acquired as well as new materials likely to be acquired in future.
  • Modernization - Libraries may have to think of computerization of the various housekeeping jobs like the acquisition, circulation, cataloging, etc.
  • Staff - When a library grows, the sanctioned staff at some stage become inadequate. So at that time an increase of staff should be considered. Any standard for staffing should be accepted by the libraries, then the library would be able to get the requisite staff.
  • Library Building -- Provision for Future - While planning and designing a library building, there should be a provision for the expansion of the building, both horizontally as well as vertically. The library should provide adequate space for the present as well as the future.
  • Safeguards - As the number of readers increase, the problem of theft of books from the library becomes acute, especially in the open access system. So, it necessitates some safeguards, such as entrance and exit should be from one gate, windows should be grilled, and all readers should be checked before leaving.


VARIANTS OF FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

Librarian Michael Gorman (born 6 March 1941, Witney, Oxfordshire) a British-born librarian, library scholar and editor/writer past president of the American Library Association, 2005–2006, and editor of AACR2), and Walt Crawford recommended the following laws in addition to Ranganathan's five in Future Libraries: Dreams, Madness, and Realities [American Library Association, 1995], (p. 8) Gorman later repeated them in his small book, Our Singular Strengths [American Library Association, 1998].

1. Libraries serve humanity.
2. Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
3. Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
4. Protect free access to knowledge.
5. Honor the past and create the future.

In 2004, librarian Alireza Noruzi recommended applying Ranganathan's laws to the Web in his paper, "Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web":

1. Web resources are for use.
2. Every user has his or her web resource.
3. Every web resource its user.
4 Save the time of the user.
5. The Web is a growing organism.

In 2008, librarian Carol Simpson recommended that editing be done to Ranganathan's law due to media richness. The following were:

1. Media are for use.
2. Every patron his information.
3. Every medium its user.
4. Save the time of the patron.
5. The library is a growing organism.


FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE ARTICLES AND NEWS

List of articles and news on Five Laws of Library Science from Library and Information Science Articles and News.

Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities

An OCLC Research Report by Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D., and Ixchel Faniel, Ph.D.

This report suggests that Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science can be reordered and reinterpreted to reflect today's library resources and services, as well as the behaviors that people demonstrate when engaging with them.

Although authors Senior Research Scientist Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Associate Research Scientist Ixchel Faniel believe Ranganathan's five laws are still relevant today, their intent is to help evolve both the work done by librarians and the perceptions of libraries and librarians. By changing how we think about the five laws in terms of interpretation and order of importance, Lynn and Ixchel hope to reflect the current resources and services available for use and the behaviors that people demonstrate when engaging with them.

The objective of this publication is to provide a timely and relevant context for Ranganathan’s laws that today’s librarians, library researchers, and information scientists can refer to as they think about making changes in practice and developing agendas for future research.

Highlights
  • Today's library users challenge librarians to move from the simple declaration of "save the time of the reader"; meeting today's users' needs requires embedding library systems and services into their existing workflows
  • Our modern-day rephrasing of "every person his or her book" is know your community and its needs
  • The core meaning of "books are for use" is still about access; however, our interpretation focuses on developing the physical and technical infrastructure needed to deliver materials
  • Our interpretation of "every book its reader" focuses on increasing the discoverability, access, and use of resources within users’ existing workflows
  • We agree that "a library is a growing organism" and propose growing users' share of attention




FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE BOOK BY S. R. RANGANATHAN (DIGITIZED BOOK)




FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE INFOGRAPHIC⁵

List of infographics on Five Laws of Library Science from Library and Information Science Infographics. Please note that this infographic, created by the University of Southern California, has a minor typo--the Second Law is given as Third Law and Third Law is wrongly given as Second Law.



FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE QUIZ

List of questions, answers, and quizzes on Five Laws of Library Science from Library and Information Science Questions Answers Quizzes. Please visit this collection and locate questions given below under the heading "Unit II" where you will also find their URLs. having answers and further explanations.

  • What are called the set of norms, percepts, and guides to good practice in librarianship? [(a) Canons of Cataloguing (b) Colon Classification (c) Five Laws (d) Five Laws of Library Science]
  • In which year the book Five Laws of Library Science was published? [(a) 1928 (b) 1931 (c) 1932 (d) 1933]
  • Identify which one of the Five Laws of Library Science that Ranganathan remarked as ‘trivial truism’ in his writing “Library Science and Scientific Method” [(1) First Law (2) Second Law (3) Third Law (4) Fifth Law]




ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (SPANISH)

Cinco leyes de la ciencia bibliotecaria

Las 5 leyes de la ciencia bibliotecaria es una teoría propuesta por S. R. Ranganathan en 1931, que detalla los principios de funcionamiento de un sistema bibliotecario. Cinco leyes de la biblioteconomía se denominan conjunto de normas, percepciones y guías de buenas prácticas en biblioteconomía. Muchos bibliotecarios de todo el mundo los aceptan como los cimientos de su filosofía. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan concibió las Cinco Leyes de la Ciencia de la Biblioteca en 1924. Las declaraciones que incorporan estas leyes se formularon en 1928. Estas leyes se publicaron por primera vez en el libro clásico de Ranganathan titulado Cinco Leyes de la Ciencia de la Biblioteca en 1931. Estas leyes son:

  • Primera ley: los libros son para uso
  • Segunda ley: cada lector tiene su libro
  • Tercera ley: cada libro es lector
  • Cuarta Ley: Ahorre el tiempo del lector
  • Quinta ley: la biblioteca es un organismo en crecimiento

Estas leyes de Library Science son las "leyes fundamentales" de Library Science. Estos son aplicables a cualquier problema en las áreas de biblioteconomía, servicio de biblioteca y práctica de biblioteca. Estas leyes son como ollas que contienen océanos. Antes de su enunciación, el tema de Library Science no tenía filosofía. Estas leyes dieron una base filosófica, garantizando un futuro eterno al tema de las bibliotecas, la profesión de biblioteconomía y el uso de las bibliotecas. Estas leyes han proporcionado un enfoque científico al tema de las bibliotecas. A pesar de que S.R. Ranganathan propuso las Cinco Leyes de la Ciencia de la Biblioteca antes del advenimiento de la era digital, todavía son válidas e igualmente relevantes en la actualidad.



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (FRENCH)

Cinq lois de la bibliothéconomie

Les 5 lois de la bibliothéconomie est une théorie proposée par S.R. Ranganathan en 1931, détaillant les principes de fonctionnement d'un système de bibliothèque. Cinq lois de la bibliothéconomie sont appelées l'ensemble des normes, percepts et guides de bonnes pratiques en bibliothéconomie. De nombreux bibliothécaires du monde entier les acceptent comme les fondements de leur philosophie. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan a conçu les cinq lois de la bibliothéconomie en 1924. Les déclarations incorporant ces lois ont été formulées en 1928. Ces lois ont été publiées pour la première fois dans le livre classique de Ranganathan intitulé Cinq lois de la bibliothéconomie en 1931. Ces lois sont:

  • Première loi: les livres sont à utiliser
  • Deuxième loi: chaque lecteur son livre
  • Troisième loi: chaque livre son lecteur
  • Quatrième loi: sauvez le temps du lecteur
  • Cinquième loi: la bibliothèque est un organisme en pleine croissance

Ces lois de la bibliothéconomie sont les "lois fondamentales" de la bibliothéconomie. Ceux-ci sont applicables à tout problème dans les domaines de la bibliothéconomie, des services de bibliothèque et de la pratique de la bibliothèque. Ces lois sont comme des pots contenant des océans. Avant leur énonciation, le sujet de la bibliothéconomie n'avait pas de philosophie. Ces lois ont donné une base philosophique, garantissant un avenir éternel au sujet de la bibliothéconomie, de la profession de bibliothécaire et de l'utilisation des bibliothèques. Ces lois ont fourni une approche scientifique au sujet de la bibliothéconomie. Même si S.R. Ranganathan a proposé les cinq lois de la bibliothéconomie avant l'avènement de l'ère numérique, elles sont toujours valables et tout aussi pertinentes aujourd'hui.




ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (GERMAN)

Fünf Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft

Die 5 Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft sind eine Theorie, die 1931 von S. R. Ranganathan vorgeschlagen wurde und die Prinzipien des Betriebs eines Bibliothekssystems detailliert beschreibt. Fünf Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft werden als Normen, Wahrnehmungen und Leitfäden für bewährte Praktiken im Bibliothekswesen bezeichnet. Viele Bibliothekare weltweit akzeptieren sie als Grundlage ihrer Philosophie. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan konzipierte 1924 die fünf Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft. Die Aussagen, die diese Gesetze verkörpern, wurden 1928 formuliert. Diese Gesetze wurden erstmals 1931 in Ranganathans klassischem Buch mit dem Titel Fünf Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft veröffentlicht. Diese Gesetze sind:

  • Erstes Gesetz: Bücher sind zur Verwendung
  • Zweites Gesetz: Jeder Leser sein / ihr Buch
  • Drittes Gesetz: Jedes Buch sein Leser
  • Viertes Gesetz: Sparen Sie die Zeit des Lesers
  • Fünftes Gesetz: Die Bibliothek ist ein wachsender Organismus

Diese Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft sind die "Grundgesetze" der Bibliothekswissenschaft. Diese gelten für alle Probleme in den Bereichen Bibliothekswissenschaft, Bibliotheksdienst und Bibliothekspraxis. Diese Gesetze sind wie ein Topf mit Ozeanen. Vor ihrer Aussprache hatte das Fach Bibliothekswissenschaft keine Philosophie. Diese Gesetze gaben eine philosophische Grundlage und garantierten dem Thema Bibliothekswissenschaft, dem Beruf des Bibliothekars und der Nutzung von Bibliotheken eine ewige Zukunft. Diese Gesetze haben einen wissenschaftlichen Ansatz für das Thema Bibliothekswissenschaft geliefert. Obwohl S.R. Ranganathan schlug die fünf Gesetze der Bibliothekswissenschaft vor dem Aufkommen des digitalen Zeitalters vor. Sie sind bis heute gültig und gleichermaßen relevant.



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (ITALIAN)

Cinque leggi della scienza delle biblioteche

The 5 Laws of Library Science è una teoria proposta da S. R. Ranganathan nel 1931, che illustra in dettaglio i principi di funzionamento di un sistema di biblioteche. Cinque leggi della scienza delle biblioteche sono chiamate insieme di norme, percezioni e guide alle buone pratiche in biblioteconomia. Molti bibliotecari di tutto il mondo li accettano come fondamenti della loro filosofia. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan ha concepito le Cinque Leggi della Biblioteca di Scienze nel 1924. Le dichiarazioni che incarnano queste leggi sono state formulate nel 1928. Queste leggi sono state pubblicate per la prima volta nel libro classico di Ranganathan intitolato Cinque Leggi della Biblioteca di Scienze nel 1931. Queste leggi sono:

  • Prima legge: i libri sono destinati all'uso
  • Seconda legge: ogni lettore il suo libro
  • Terza legge: ogni libro è un lettore
  • Quarta legge: risparmia il tempo del lettore
  • Quinta legge: la biblioteca è un organismo in crescita

Queste leggi di Library Science sono le "leggi fondamentali" di Library Science. Questi sono applicabili a qualsiasi problema nelle aree della scienza delle biblioteche, del servizio bibliotecario e della pratica bibliotecaria. Queste leggi sono come vasi contenenti oceani. Prima della loro enunciazione, l'argomento della Library Science non aveva filosofia. Queste leggi hanno fornito una base filosofica, garantendo un futuro eterno all'argomento della scienza delle biblioteche, alla professione di bibliotecario e all'uso delle biblioteche. Queste leggi hanno fornito un approccio scientifico al tema della scienza delle biblioteche. Anche se S.R. Ranganathan ha proposto le Cinque Leggi della Biblioteca scientifica prima dell'avvento dell'era digitale, che sono ancora valide e ugualmente rilevanti oggi.



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (RUSSIAN)

Пять законов библиотечного дела

«5 законов библиотечного дела» - это теория, предложенная С. Р. Ранганатаном в 1931 году, подробно описывающая принципы работы библиотечной системы. Пять законов библиотечного дела называются сводом норм, представлений и руководств по надлежащей практике в библиотечном деле. Многие библиотекари по всему миру принимают их как основы своей философии. Доктор С.Р. Ранганатан разработал Пять законов библиотечного дела в 1924 году. Заявления, воплощающие эти законы, были сформулированы в 1928 году. Эти законы впервые были опубликованы в классической книге Ранганатана под названием «Пять законов библиотечного дела» в 1931 году. Эти законы:

  • Первый закон: книги для использования
  • Второй закон: каждый читатель своей книги
  • Третий закон: каждая книга - ее читатель
  • Четвертый закон: сэкономьте время читателя
  • Пятый закон: библиотека - растущий организм

Эти законы библиотечного дела являются «фундаментальными законами» библиотечного дела. Они применимы к любой проблеме в области библиотечного дела, библиотечного обслуживания и библиотечной практики. Эти законы похожи на горшок, содержащий океаны. До их изложения у предмета Библиотековедения не было философии. Эти законы дали философскую базу, гарантирующую вечное будущее для предмета библиотечного дела, профессии библиотекаря и использования библиотек. Эти законы обеспечили научный подход к предмету библиотечного дела. Хотя С.Р. Ранганатан предложил пять законов библиотечного дела до появления цифровой эры, они все еще актуальны и в равной степени актуальны и сегодня.



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (HINDI)

पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के पांच सिद्धांत

लाइब्रेरी साइंस को संचालित करने के सिद्धांतों का विस्तार करते हुए 5 लॉज़ ऑफ़ लाइब्रेरी साइंस एस. आर. रंगनाथन द्वारा 1931 में प्रस्तावित एक सिद्धांत है। पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के पांच नियमों को लाइब्रेरियनशिप में अच्छे अभ्यास के लिए मानदंडों, विचारों और मार्गदर्शकों का समूह कहा जाता है। दुनिया भर में कई लाइब्रेरियन उन्हें अपने दर्शन की नींव के रूप में स्वीकार करते हैं। डॉ। एस.आर. रंगनाथन ने 1924 में पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के पांच सिद्धांतों की कल्पना की। इन सिद्धांतों को मूर्त रूप देने के बयान 1928 में तैयार किए गए थे। इन सिद्धांतों  को पहली बार 1931 में रंगनाथन की क्लासिक पुस्तक फाइव लॉज ऑफ लाइब्रेरी साइंस शीर्षक से प्रकाशित किया गया था। ये कानून हैं:

  • पहला सिद्धांत: किताबें उपयोग के लिए हैं
  • दूसरा सिद्धांत: हर पाठक उसकी / उसकी पुस्तक
  • तीसरा सिद्धांत: हर पुस्तक इसके पाठक
  • चौथा सिद्धांत: पाठक का समय बचाओ
  • पाँचवाँ सिद्धांत: पुस्तकालय एक बढ़ता हुआ जीव है

लाइब्रेरी साइंस के ये सिद्धांत लाइब्रेरी साइंस के "मौलिक सिद्धांत" हैं। ये पुस्तकालय विज्ञान, पुस्तकालय सेवा और पुस्तकालय अभ्यास के क्षेत्रों में किसी भी समस्या के लिए लागू होते हैं। ये कानून महासागरों वाले बर्तन की तरह हैं। उनके नामांकन से पहले, लाइब्रेरी साइंस के विषय में कोई दर्शन नहीं था। इन सिद्धांतों ने एक दार्शनिक आधार दिया, पुस्तकालय विज्ञान, लाइब्रेरियनशिप के पेशे, और पुस्तकालयों के उपयोग के विषय में हमेशा के लिए भविष्य की गारंटी। इन सिद्धांतों ने पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के विषय में वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोण प्रदान किया है। भले ही एस.आर. रंगनाथन ने डिजिटल युग के आगमन से पहले पुस्तकालय विज्ञान के पांच सिद्धांतों का प्रस्ताव रखा था, वे आज भी मान्य हैं और समान रूप से प्रासंगिक हैं।



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (CHINESE)

图书馆学五定律

图书馆科学五法则是S. R. Ranganathan在1931年提出的一种理论,详细介绍了图书馆系统的运作原理。 图书馆学的五项法则被称为一套规范,观念和指导,以指导图书馆事业的良好实践。 世界各地的许多图书馆员都接受它们作为其哲学的基础。 S.R.博士 Ranganathan于1924年构思了图书馆学五法则。体现这些法律的声明于1928年制定。这些法则首次发表于Ranganathan的经典著作《图书馆学五法则》于1931年。这些法则是:

  • 第一定律:书籍可供使用
  • 第二定律:每个读者他/她的书
  • 第三定律:每本书的读者
  • 第四定律:节省读者时间
  • 第五法:图书馆是一个成长中的有机体

图书馆学的这些定律是图书馆学的“基本定律”。 这些适用于图书馆学,图书馆服务和图书馆实践领域的任何问题。 这些法律就像盛有海洋的锅。 在它们宣布之前,图书馆学这个学科没有哲学。 这些法律奠定了哲学基础,为图书馆学,图书馆事业和图书馆的使用提供了永恒的未来。 这些法律为图书馆学提供了科学的方法。 即使S.R. Ranganathan在数字时代到来之前提出了《图书馆学五定律》,这些定律在今天仍然有效且同样重要。



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (JAPANESE)

図書館学の5つの法則

図書館科学の5つの法則は、1931年にS. R. Ranganathanによって提案された理論であり、図書館システムの運用原理を詳述しています。 図書館学の5つの法則は、一連の規範、考え方、および図書館員としての優れた実践への指針と呼ばれています。 世界中の多くの司書が彼らを彼らの哲学の基礎として受け入れています。 S.R.博士 ランガナサンは1924年に図書館学の5つの法律を考案しました。これらの法律を具体化する声明は1928年に策定されました。これらの法律は、1931年に図書館学の5つの法律というタイトルのランガナサンの古典書で最初に発表されました。これらの法律は次のとおりです。

  • 第一法:本は使用する
  • 第二法則:すべての読者の本
  • 第三法則:すべての本とその読者
  • 第4の法律:読者の時間を節約
  • 第5法:図書館は成長する生物

これらの図書館学の法律は、図書館学の「基本法」です。 これらは、図書館学、図書館サービス、および図書館業務の分野におけるあらゆる問題に適用できます。 これらの法律は、海を含む鍋のようなものです。 彼らの発表の前は、図書館学の主題には哲学がありませんでした。 これらの法律は、哲学の基盤を提供し、図書館学の主題、図書館学の専門職、および図書館の利用に永遠の未来を保証しました。 これらの法律は図書館学の主題に科学的なアプローチを提供しました。 S.R. ランガナサンは、デジタル時代が到来する前に図書館学の5つの法則を提案しましたが、それらは現在も有効であり、今日でも同等に関連しています。



ABOUT FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE (PORTUGUESE)

Cinco Leis da Biblioteconomia

As 5 Leis da Biblioteconomia é uma teoria proposta por S. R. Ranganathan em 1931, detalhando os princípios de operação de um sistema de bibliotecas. Cinco leis da biblioteconomia são chamadas de conjunto de normas, percepções e guias de boas práticas em biblioteconomia. Muitos bibliotecários em todo o mundo os aceitam como os fundamentos de sua filosofia. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan concebeu as Cinco Leis da Biblioteconomia em 1924. As declarações que incorporam essas leis foram formuladas em 1928. Essas leis foram publicadas pela primeira vez no livro clássico de Ranganathan, intitulado Cinco Leis da Biblioteconomia em 1931. Essas leis são:

  • Primeira Lei: Os Livros São Para Uso
  • Segunda Lei: Todo Leitor Seu Livro
  • Terceira lei: todo livro, seu leitor
  • Quarta Lei: Economize o Tempo do Leitor
  • Quinta lei: a biblioteca é um organismo em crescimento

Essas leis da Biblioteconomia são as "leis fundamentais" da Biblioteconomia. Eles são aplicáveis a qualquer problema nas áreas de biblioteconomia, serviço de biblioteca e prática de bibliotecas. Essas leis são como vasos contendo oceanos. Antes de sua enunciação, o assunto Biblioteconomia não tinha filosofia. Essas leis deram uma base filosófica, garantindo um futuro eterno para o assunto das bibliotecas, a profissão de biblioteconomia e o uso de bibliotecas. Essas leis forneceram uma abordagem científica ao assunto das bibliotecas. Mesmo que S.R. Ranganathan propôs as Cinco Leis da Biblioteconomia antes do advento da era digital, elas ainda são válidas e igualmente relevantes hoje.








USED FOR
  • Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science




REFERENCES

1. Ranganathan, S. R. (Shiyali Ramamrita), 1892-1972. The Five Laws of Library Science; Edward Goldston, Ltd.: London, 1931.

2. Rubin, Richard E. Foundations of Library and Information Science. 2nd ed.; Neal-Schuman Publishers: New York, 2004.

3. Five laws of library science. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_laws_of_library_science (accessed September 10, 2017)

4. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ixchel M. Faniel. 2014. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research.http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-reordering-ranganathan-2014.pdf.

5. USC University of South California, Marshall School of Business. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws of Library Science. http://librarysciencedegree.usc.edu/resources/infographics/dr-s-r-ranganathans-five-laws-of-library-science/ (accessed September 17, 2017)

6. Aspe, Ron. Do the Original 5 Laws of Library Science Hold Up in a Digital World? http://blog.lucidea.com/do-the-original-5-laws-of-library-science-hold-up-in-a-digital-world (accessed September 20, 2017)

7. S. R. Ranganathan. Library Science and Scientific Method. http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/28515/1/ALIS%204%281%29%2019-32.pdf




SEE ALSO




CITATION INFORMATION

  • Article Title: Five Laws of Library Science
  • Author: Salman Haider
  • Website Name: Librarianship Studies & Information Technology
  • URL: https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2017/09/five-laws-of-library-science.html
  • Last Updated: 2020-04-02
  • Original Published Date: 2017-09-10




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This multimedia article Five Laws of Library Science is widely discussed, appreciated, cited, referred, and hyperlinked. Some places where it is discussed and referred are given below.

Links, Citations & References

  • Agricultural Information Management Standards (AIMS), Food and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Italy. http://aims.fao.org/activity/blog/five-laws-library-science-detailing-principles-operating-library-system 
  • Mathur, P. (2019). Genrefication @ The Kings’ School Senior Library. Government of Australia, New South Wales Education Department. https://education.nsw.gov.au/teaching-and-learning/professional-learning/scan/past-issues/vol-38--2019/genrefication---the-kings-school-senior-library (accessed April 3, 2020).
  • UCLA (The University of California at Los Angeles), "Seminar: Special Issues in Information Studies: Indigenous Librarianship" -- https://ccle.ucla.edu/course/view/20S-INFSTD289-4?section=1 (accessed April 5, 2020).
  • The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, "Virtual Reality and Education: From Classrooms to Libraries" http://volweb.utk.edu/~amihailo/vrsurvey.html (accessed April 5, 2020).
  • Knowledge Quest (Journal of the American Association of School Librarians), "Save the Time of the Reader," https://knowledgequest.aasl.org/save-the-time-of-the-reader/ (accessed April 5, 2020).
  • Gustavus Adolphus College, United States, https://folkelore.blog.gustavus.edu/2019/10/10/library-matters-libraries-matter-infrastructure-part-one/ 

LinkedIn

  • Adriano Silva, Senior Librarian and Information Professional, Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto / Oporto Public Library, Portugal -- Great! I love it! Specially the part of "publicity"
  • Jennifer Closson, Library Technician at City of San Diego Literacy Tutoring READ program, United States -- Do unmanned libraries have the same five laws?
  • Salman Haider -- Yes of course. These these Five Laws are the fundamental guiding principles of librarianship which are still relevant in modern unmanned libraries as well as with digital resources. For unmanned libraries the variant of five laws given my Michael Gorman is more relevant which is also described in the Librarianship Studies blog article.
  • Florica Campeanu, Ricercatore/tecnologo presso Istituto Nazionale Di Economia Agraria, Italy -- All libraries, without librarians or with one or thousands of librarians, are of use to their readers/users. Ranganathan and his followers focuse on them
  • Victoria Frâncu, Librarian at Central University Library of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania -- Ranganathan's laws are still valid and they will always be. I remember a lady from Finland, presenting a paper on this, in an international conference, twenty years ago. It is significant that we are discussing now about the five rules, don't you think?
  • Duraisamy Gnanasekaran, Librarian at Anand Institute of Higher Technology -- Whatever the format of the contents/services provided in the libraries, it is not a matter whether the library is manned or unmanned, the SRR's five laws are applicable forever since the Five Laws are the fundamental guiding principles of librarianship as rightly pointed out by Salman Haider.
  • Chitra Karunanayake, Manager, Library Services, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Library, Monash University Sydney, Australia -- I have read Ranganathan's Five laws before I started Library studies and that inspired me to start my career in librarianship. I think these laws are still valid and applicable to any library.
  • Champika Mahanthege, Librarian at National Institute of Business Management (NIBM), Sri Lanka -- Very useful information...
  • Vijaya Vijayaprabhakar, Library Administrator at Vijaya Postgraduation Library, Annamalai University, Bengaluru Area, India -- [LinkedIn] -- Yes, of course, these laws are very valuable and it is applicable to all sorts of library
  • Olugbenga Charles OKE, Certified Library, Archival & Information Professional, The Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE), Nigeria -- I would rather refer to these laws as principles they are the basis for the services provided by Librarians and Information Scientists. These principles are very valuable even in this century.
  • Trevor Sikhosana, Senior Librarian at City of Cape Town, Scottsdene Library University of KwaZulu-Natal, Cape Town Area, South Africa -- Ten years after having read about them in college, I still refer to them as the foundation of how we provide the service, especially in times when I feel derailed.
  • Ratemo Moses, Librarian at Kisii University, Kenya -- I like the laws, they inspired me to join the career that I am in. Thanks to Ranganathan.
  • Uma Mageswary Krishnan, Library Manager Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia -- Very valuable information.
  • Marie Tomlin, LSC and E-resources Manager at Northumberland, Northumbria University, North Seaton, Northumberland, United Kingdom -- This is extremely interesting. I'm busy studying MSc information science. I'll be looking further into these laws.
  • Toboulayefa Ariaye, Librarian, Information Access International Limited Delta State University (NG), Nigeria -- The five laws of Library Science, is the bedrock on which all activities of a Librarian/ Information Scientist revolves.
  • Wellington Soko, Librarian at Domasi College of Education, Malawi -- Indeed Cornerstone for the library.
  • Donna Kellion, Digital Literacy Librarian at Mackay Regional Council Libraries, Charles Sturt University, Mackay, Australia -- Other than the term 'books', I don't believe the laws require a review. Regardless of whether the resources we direct our users to are in print, open online or hidden within the depths of a database, we should still be directing them towards their 'book'.
  • Sabrina Miller, Edmonton Public Library, Canada - "The library is a growing organism"- absolutely! That's why they are not obsolete, not as long as we find creative, innovative ways to stay relevant in serving our communities. We're not just about books anymore!


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