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MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) standards are a set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books. Working with the Library of Congress, American computer scientist Henriette Avram developed MARC in the 1960s to create records that could be read by computers and shared among libraries. By 1971, MARC formats had become the US national standard for dissemination of bibliographic data. Two years later, they became the international standard. There are several versions of MARC in use around the world, the most predominant being MARC 21, created in 1999 as a result of the harmonization of U.S. and Canadian MARC formats, and UNIMARC, widely used in Europe. The MARC 21 family of standards now includes formats for authority records, holdings records, classification schedules, and community information, in addition to the format for bibliographic records.⁽¹⁾

MARC 21 was designed to redefine the original MARC record format for the 21st century and to make it more accessible to the international community. MARC 21 has formats for the following five types of data: Bibliographic Format, Authority Format, Holdings Format, Community Format, and Classification Data Format. Currently MARC 21 has been implemented successfully by The British Library, the European Institutions and the major library institutions in the United States, and Canada.

MARC 21 is a result of the combination of the United States and Canadian MARC formats (USMARC and CAN/MARC). MARC21 is based on the NISO/ANSI standard Z39.2, which allows users of different software products to communicate with each other and to exchange data.

MARC 21 allows the use of two character sets, either MARC-8 or Unicode encoded as UTF-8. MARC-8 is based on ISO 2022 and allows the use of Hebrew, Cyrillic, Arabic, Greek, and East Asian scripts. MARC 21 in UTF-8 format allows all the languages supported by Unicode.

MARC 21 is the product of the integration of USMARC, UKMARC and CANMARC (Canadian MARC). It is the most extensively used MARC format in the world and a de facto standard. It has been designed to be both a production format and an exchange format. The current maintenance agency for MARC 21 is the Library of Congress. There are five MARC 21 formats: 

  1. Bibliographic
  2. Authorities
  3. Holdings
  4. Classification
  5. Community information

The future of the MARC formats is a matter of some debate among libraries. On the one hand, the storage formats are quite complex and are based on outdated technology. On the other, there is no alternative bibliographic format with an equivalent degree of granularity. The billions of MARC records in tens of thousands of individual libraries (including over 50,000,000 belonging to the OCLC consortium alone) create inertia. The Library of Congress has launched the Bibliographic Framework Initiative (BIBFRAME), which aims at providing a replacement for MARC that provides greater granularity and easier re-use of the data expressed in multiple catalogs.

Note: This article is Under Development.


  • MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data 
  • MARC 21 Format for Authority Data
  • MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data
  • MARC 21 Format for Classification Data
  • MARC 21 Format for Community Information
  • Videos About MARC 21
  • MARC 21 Articles and News

Library of Congress
Library of Congress [Photo by Carol M. Highsmith/Wikipedia]


A MARC record is composed of three elements: the record structure, the content designation, and the data content of the record. The record structure is an implementation of the international standard Format for Information Exchange (ISO 2709) and its American counterpart, Bibliographic Information Interchange (ANSI/NISO Z39.2). The content designation--the codes and conventions established explicitly to identify and further characterize the data elements within a record and to support the manipulation of that data--is defined by each of the MARC formats. The content of the data elements that comprise a MARC record is usually defined by standards outside the formats. Examples are the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), or other cataloging rules, subject thesauri, and classification schedules used by the organization that creates a record. The content of certain coded data elements is defined in the MARC formats (e.g., the Leader, field 007, field 008).

Scope of the Bibliographic Format

MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data is designed to be a carrier for bibliographic information about printed and manuscript textual materials, computer files, maps, music, continuing resources, visual materials, and mixed materials. Bibliographic data commonly includes titles, names, subjects, notes, publication data, and information about the physical description of an item. The bibliographic format contains data elements for the following types of material:

  • Books (BK) - used for printed, electronic, manuscript, and microform textual material that is monographic in nature.
  • Continuing resources (CR) - used for printed, electronic, manuscript, and microform textual material that is issued in parts with a recurring pattern of publication (e.g., periodicals, newspapers, yearbooks). (NOTE: Prior to 2002, Continuing resources (CR) were referred to as Serials (SE)).
  • Computer files (CF) - used for computer software, numeric data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or services. Other classes of electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect. Material may be monographic or serial in nature.
  • Maps (MP) - used for all types of printed, electronic, manuscript, and microform cartographic materials, including atlases, sheet maps, and globes. Material may be monographic or serial in nature.
  • Music (MU) - used for printed, electronic, manuscript, and microform music, as well as musical sound recordings, and non-musical sound recordings. Material may be monographic or serial in nature.
  • Visual materials (VM) - used for projected media, non-projected media, two-dimensional graphics, three-dimensional artifacts or naturally occurring objects, and kits. Material may be monographic or serial in nature.
  • Mixed materials (MX) - used primarily for archival and manuscript collections of a mixture of forms of material. Material may be monographic or serial in nature. (NOTE: Prior to 1994, Mixed materials (MX) were referred to as Archival and manuscript material (AM)).

Kinds of Bibliographic Records

MARC bibliographic records are distinguished from all other types of MARC records by specific codes in Leader/06 (Type of record) which identifies the following bibliographic record types.
  • Language material
  • Nonmusical sound recording
  • Manuscript language material
  • Musical sound recording
  • Computer file
  • Projected medium
  • Cartographic material
  • Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic
  • Manuscript cartographic material
  • Three-dimensional artifact or natural objects
  • Notated music Kit
  • Manuscript music
  • Mixed material

Components of Bibliographic Records

Description of Record Parts

A MARC bibliographic record consists of three main components: the Leader, the Directory, and the variable fields. The following information summarizes the structure of a separate MARC record. More detail is provided in MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media.
  • Leader - Data elements that primarily provide information for the processing of the record. The data elements contain numbers or coded values and are identified by relative character position. The Leader is fixed in length at 24 character positions and is the first field of a MARC record.
  • Directory - A series of entries that contain the tag, length, and starting location of each variable field within a record. Each entry is 12 character positions in length. Directory entries for variable control fields appear first, sequenced by the field tag in increasing numerical order. Entries for variable data fields follow, arranged in ascending order according to the first character of the tag. The stored sequence of the variable data fields in a record does not necessarily correspond to the order of the corresponding Directory entries. Duplicate tags are distinguished only by the location of the respective fields within the record. The Directory ends with a field terminator character (ASCII 1E hex).
  • Variable fields - The data in a MARC bibliographic record is organized into variable fields, each identified by a three-character numeric tag that is stored in the Directory entry for the field. Each field ends with a field terminator character. The last variable field in a record ends with both a field terminator and a record terminator (ASCII 1D hex). There are two types of variable fields.
  • Variable control fields - The 00X fields. These fields are identified by a field tag in the Directory but they contain neither indicator positions nor subfield codes. The variable control fields are structurally different from the variable data fields. They may contain either a single data element or a series of fixed-length data elements identified by relative character position.
  • Variable data fields - The remaining variable fields defined in the format. In addition to being identified by a field tag in the Directory, variable data fields contain two indicator positions stored at the beginning of each field and a two-character subfield code preceding each data element within the field.
  • The variable data fields are grouped into blocks according to the first character of the tag, which with some exceptions identifies the function of the data within the record. The type of information in the field is identified by the remainder of the tag.

Following describe the intellectual and physical characteristics of bibliographic resources (books, sound recordings, video recordings, and so forth).




00X - Control Fields-General Information

001 Control Number
003 Control Number Identifier
005 Date and Time of Latest Transaction
006 Fixed-Length Data Elements -- Additional Material Characteristics
007 Physical Description Fixed Field
008 Fixed Length Data Elements


01X-09X - Control Information, Number and Codes-General Information

010 Library of Congress Control Number
013 Patent Control Information
015 National Bibliography Number
016 National Bibliographic Agency Control Number
017 Copyright or Legal Deposit Number
018 Copyright Article-Fee Code
020 International Standard Book Number
022 International Standard Serial Number
024 Other Standard Identifier
025 Overseas Acquisition Number
027 Standard Technical Report Number
028 Publisher or Distributor Number
030 CODEN Designation
031 Musical Incipits Information
032 Postal Registration Number
033 Date/Time and Place of an Event
034 Coded Cartographic Mathematical Data
035 System Control Number
036 Original Study Number for Computer Data files
037 Source of Acquisition
038 Record Content Licensor
040 Cataloging Source
041 Language Code
042 Authentication Code
043 Geographic Area Code
044 Country of Publishing/Producing Entity Code
045 Time Period of Content
046 Special Coded Dates
047 Form of Musical Composition Code
048 Number of Musical Instruments or Voices Code
050 Library of Congress Call Number
051 Library of Congress Copy, Issue, Offprint Statement
052 Geographic Classification
055 Classification Numbers Assigned in Canada
060 National Library of Medicine Call Number
061 National Library of Medicine Copy Statement
066 Character Sets Present
070 National Agricultural Library Call Number
071 National Agricultural Library Copy Statement
072 Subject Category Code
074 GPO Item Number
080 Universal Decimal Classification Number
082 Dewey Decimal Classification Number
083 Additional Dewey Decimal Classification Number
084 Other Classification Number
085 Synthesized Classification Number Components
086 Government Document Classification Number
088 Report Number
09X Local Call Numbers

Heading Fields - General Information Sections

X00 Personal Names-General Information
X10 Corporate Names-General Information
X11 Meeting Names-General Information
X30 Uniform Titles-General Information

1XX - Main Entries-General Information

100 Main Entry-Personal Name
110 Main Entry-Corporate Name
111 Main Entry-Meeting Name
130 Main Entry-Uniform Title

20X-24X - Title and Title-Related Fields -- General Information

210 Abbreviated Title
222 Key Title
240 Uniform Title
242 Translation of Title by Cataloging Agency
243 Collective Uniform Title
245 Title Statement
246 Varying Form of Title
247 Former Title

25X-28X - Edition, Imprint, Etc. Fields - General Information

250 Edition Statement
254 Musical Presentation Statement
255 Cartographic Mathematical Data
256 Computer File Characteristics
257 Country of Producing Entity
258 Philatelic Issue Data
260 Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)
263 Projected Publication Date
264 Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice
270 Address

3XX - Physical Description, Etc. Fields - General Information

300 Physical Description
306 Playing Time
307 Hours, Etc.
310 Current Publication Frequency
321 Former Publication Frequency
336 Content Type
337 Media Type
338 Carrier Type
340 Physical Medium
342 Geospatial Reference Data
343 Planar Coordinate Data
344 Sound Characteristics
345 Projection Characteristics of Moving Image
346 Video Characteristics
347 Digital File Characteristics
348 Format of Notated Music
351 Organization and Arrangement of Materials
352 Digital Graphic Representation
355 Security Classification Control
357 Originator Dissemination Control
362 Dates of Publication and/or Sequential Designation
363 Normalized Date and Sequential Designation
365 Trade Price
366 Trade Availability Information
370 Associated Place
377 Associated Language
380 Form of Work
381 Other Distinguishing Characteristics of Work or Expression
382 Medium of Performance
383 Numeric Designation of Musical Work
384 Key
385 Audience Characteristics
386 Creator/Contributor Characteristics
388 Time Period of Creation

4XX - Series Statements - General Information

490 Series Statement

5XX - Notes-General Information

500 General Note
501 With Note
502 Dissertation Note
504 Bibliography, Etc. Note
505 Formatted Contents Note
506 Restrictions on Access Note
507 Scale Note for Graphic Material
508 Creation/Production Credits Note
510 Citation/References Note
511 Participant or Performer Note
513 Type of Report and Period Covered Note
514 Data Quality Note
515 Numbering Peculiarities Note
516 Type of Computer File or Data Note
518 Date/Time and Place of an Event Note
520 Summary, Etc.
521 Target Audience Note
522 Geographic Coverage Note
524 Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note
525 Supplement Note
526 Study Program Information Note
530 Additional Physical Form Available Note
533 Reproduction Note
534 Original Version Note
535 Location of Originals/Duplicates Note
536 Funding Information Note
538 System Details Note
540 Terms Governing Use and Reproduction Note
541 Immediate Source of Acquisition Note
542 Information Relating to Copyright Status
544 Location of Other Archival Materials Note
545 Biographical or Historical Data
546 Language Note
547 Former Title Complexity Note
550 Issuing Body Note
552 Entity and Attribute Information Note
555 Cumulative Index/Finding Aids Note
556 Information about Documentation Note
561 Ownership and Custodial History
562 Copy and Version Identification Note
563 Binding Information
565 Case File Characteristics Note
567 Methodology Note
580 Linking Entry Complexity Note
581 Publications About Described Materials Note
583 Action Note
584 Accumulation and Frequency of Use Note
585 Exhibitions Note
586 Awards Note
588 Source of Description Note
59X Local Notes

6XX - Subject Access Fields - General Information

600 Subject Added Entry-Personal Name
610 Subject Added Entry-Corporate Name
611 Subject Added Entry-Meeting Name
630 Subject Added Entry-Uniform Title
647 Subject Added Entry-Named Event
648 Subject Added Entry-Chronological Term
650 Subject Added Entry-Topical Term
651 Subject Added Entry-Geographic Name
653 Index Term-Uncontrolled
654 Subject Added Entry-Faceted Topical Terms
655 Index Term-Genre/Form
656 Index Term-Occupation
657 Index Term-Function
658 Index Term-Curriculum Objective
662 Subject Added Entry-Hierarchical Place Name
69X Local Subject Access Fields

70X-75X - Added Entries - General Information

700 Added Entry-Personal Name
710 Added Entry-Corporate Name
711 Added Entry-Meeting Name
720 Added Entry-Uncontrolled Name
730 Added Entry-Uniform Title
740 Added Entry-Uncontrolled Related/Analytical Title
751 Added Entry-Geographic Name
752 Added Entry-Hierarchical Place Name
753 System Details Access to Computer Files
754 Added Entry-Taxonomic Identification

76X-78X - Linking Entries-General Information

760 Main Series Entry
762 Subseries Entry
765 Original Language Entry
767 Translation Entry
770 Supplement/Special Issue Entry
772 Supplement Parent Entry
773 Host Item Entry
774 Constituent Unit Entry
775 Other Edition Entry
776 Additional Physical Form Entry
777 Issued With Entry
780 Preceding Entry
785 Succeeding Entry
786 Data Source Entry
787 Other Relationship Entry

80X-83X       Series Added Entries-General Information

800 Series Added Entry-Personal Name
810 Series Added Entry-Corporate Name
811 Series Added Entry-Meeting Name
830 Series Added Entry-Uniform Title

841-88X - Holdings, Alternate Graphics, Etc.-General Information

850 Holding Institution Full | Concise

852 Location

856 Electronic Location and Access

880 Alternate Graphic Representation

882 Replacement Record Information

883 Machine-generated Metadata Provenance

884 Description Conversion Information

885 Matching Information

886 Foreign MARC Information Field

887 Non-MARC Information Field

Library of Congress
Library of Congress [Photo credit: Carol M. Highsmith/Wikipedia]


Provide information about individual names, subjects, and uniform titles. An authority record establishes an authorized form of each heading, with references as appropriate from other forms of the heading.

This section chiefly draws information from NACO Participants' Manual⁴ and Library of Congress MARC 21 Format for Authority Data⁵.

X00 - Personal Names-General Information

Source: Library of Congress - X00 - Personal Names-General Information⁶

X00 - Personal Names-General Information

MARC 21 Authority
December 2017

"Full" documentation refers to the MARC 21 Format for Authority Data that contains detailed descriptions of every data element, along with examples, input conventions and history sections.

"Concise" documentation refers to the MARC 21 Format for Authority Data that contains abridged descriptions of every data element, along with examples.

  • 100 - Heading - Personal Name (NR)  Full | Concise
  • 400 - See From Tracing - Personal Name (R)  Full | Concise
  • 500 - See Also From Tracing - Personal Name (R)  Full | Concise
  • 700 - Established Heading Linking Entry - Personal Name (R)  Full | Concise

First IndicatorSecond Indicator
Type of personal name entry element
0 - Forename
1 - Surname
3 - Family name

100 - Undefined
# - Undefined

400 - Undefined
# - Undefined

500 - Undefined
# - Undefined

700 - Thesaurus
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes

Name portion

  • $a - Personal name (NR)
  • $b - Numeration (NR)
  • $c - Titles and other words associated with a name (R)
  • $d - Dates associated with a name (NR)
  • $e - Relator term (R)
  • $j - Attribution qualifier (R)
  • $q - Fuller form of name (NR)

Title portion

  • $f - Date of a work (NR)
  • $h - Medium (NR)
  • $k - Form subheading (R)
  • $l - Language of a work (NR)
  • $m - Medium of performance for music (R)
  • $n - Number of part/section of a work (R)
  • $o - Arranged statement for music (NR)
  • $p - Name of part/section of a work (R)
  • $r - Key for music (NR)
  • $s - Version (R)
  • $t - Title of a work (NR)

Name and title portions

  • $g - Miscellaneous information (R)

Tracing and linking subfields

  • $i - Relationship information (R)   [400/500/700]
  • $w - Control subfield (NR)   [400/500/700]
  • $0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)   [500/700]
  • $1 - Real World Object URI (R)   [500/700]
  • $2 - Source of heading or term (NR)   [700]
  • $4 - Relationship (R)   [400/500/700]
  • $5 - Institution to which field applies (R)   [400/500/700]
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

Subject subdivision portion

  • $v - Form subdivision (R)
  • $x - General subdivision (R)
  • $y - Chronological subdivision (R)
  • $z - Geographic subdivision (R)


Content designators identify the subelements occurring in a name or name/title heading that contains a personal name constructed according to generally accepted cataloging and thesaurus-building rules (e.g., Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)). Personal names used in phrase subject headings (e.g., John, the Baptist, Saint, in the Koran) are contained in the X50 fields.

Only generally-applicable content designators are described in full in this section. A small number of content designators with field-specific instructions are described in the Tracings and References-General Information section (for field 400 and 500) and the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section (for field 700).


First Indicator - Type of personal name entry element

Form of the entry element of the name portion of a heading. The values distinguish among forenames, surnames, and family names used as the entry element.

0 - Forename

Forename or a name consisting of words, phrases, initials, separate letters, or numerals that are formatted in direct order.

1000#$aRadulfus,$cNiger,$db. ca. 1140.$tChronica
4000#$aAuthor of The diary of a physician,$d1807-1877
[Name formatted in direct order.]
4001#$aDiary of a physician, Author of The,$d1807-1877
1000#$aC. E. L. J.
4001#$aJ., C. E. L.
[Name formatted in inverted order in field 400; first indicator value is 1.]
4000#$aDr. X
1 - Surname

Surname formatted in inverted order (surname, forename) or a name without forename(s) which is known to be a surname. If there is uncertainty that a name without forename(s) is a surname, the first indicator position contains value 0. Phrases, when formulated with inversion and an entry element similar to a surname are treated as a surname.

1001#$aOlearius, Adam,$d1603-1671
[Name without forename known to be a surname.]
4001#$aO., A.$q(Adam Olearius),$d1603-1671
1001#$aDe Angelini, Anna
4001#$aAngelini, Anna de
1001#$aAllsworth-Jones, P.
4001#$aJones, P. Allsworth-
1001#$aAlderwerelt van Rosenburgh, C. R. W. K. van$q(Cornelis Rugier Willem Karel),$d1863-1936
4001#$aVan Alderwerelt van Rosenburgh, C. R. W. K.$q(Cornelis Rugier Willem Karel),$d1863-1936
1001#$aMcCoy, Hal
1001#$aO'Brien, Gerard
4001#$aS., Anton D.
1001#$aAleixandre Ferrandis, V.
1001#$aHinojosa-S., Rolando R.
1001#$aDigby of Geashill, Frances Noel Digby,$cBaroness,$d1660 or 61-1684
1001#$aMateu y Llopis, Felipe,$d1901-
1001#$aSan Román, Teresa
1001#$aEl Saffar, Ruth S.,$d1941-
3 - Family name

Name of a family, clan, dynasty, house, or other such group. The name may be constructed in direct or inverted order.

1003#$aArey family
5003#$aIhrig family
1003#$aGuelf, House of
4003#$aHouse of Guelf
1003#$aAttalid dynasty,$d282-133 B.C.
1003#$aVon der Au family

Second Indicator

In fields 100400, and 500, the second indicator position is undefined and contains a blank (#). For field 700, the second indicator position contains one of the values described in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.


$a - Personal name

Name may be a surname and/or forename; letters, initials, abbreviations, phrases, or numbers used in place of a name; or a family name. A parenthetical qualifying term associated with the name is contained in subfield $c, and a fuller form of name added as a qualifier is contained in subfield $q.

1000#$aThomas$c(Anglo-Norman poet)
1001#$aStoodt, Dieter
1001#$aGranet Velez, Gail
1003#$aPlantagenet, House of
1003#$aPremyslid dynasty
1001#$aKarkhanis, Sharad-
4000#$aSharad Karkhanis
1000#$aW. P.,$cEsq.
4001#$aP., W.,$cEsq.

$b - Numeration

Roman numeral or a roman numeral and a subsequent part of a forename. It is used only when the entry element is a forename (first indicator, value 0).

1000#$aGustaf$bV,$cKing of Sweden,$d1858-1950
4000#$aOscar Gustaf$bV Adolf,$cKing of Sweden,$d1858-1950
1001#$aAppleton, Victor,$cII
[Roman numeral used with a surname heading (first indicator, value 1) is contained in subfield $c.]

$c - Titles and other words associated with a name

Includes qualifying information such as

  • titles designating rank, office, or nobility, e.g., Sir
  • terms of address, e.g., Mrs.
  • initials of an academic degree or denoting membership in an organization, e.g., F.L.A.
  • a roman numeral used with a surname
  • other words or phrases associated with the name, e.g., clockmaker, Saint.

If the entry element is a surname followed directly by a prefix without intervening forenames or forename initials, the prefix is contained in subfield $c to prevent its being treated as a forename in searching and sorting processes.


Multiple adjacent titles or words associated with a name are contained in a single subfield $c. Subfield $c is repeated only when words associated with a name are separated by subelements contained in other subfields.

1001#$aSalisbury, James Cecil,$cEarl of,$dd. 1683
1000#$aNorodom Sihanouk Varman,$cKing of Cambodia,$d1922-
1000#$aCuthbert,$cFather, O.S.F.C.,$d1866-1939
1000#$aThomas,$cAquinas, Saint,$d1225?-1274
1000#$aThomas$c(Anglo-Norman poet).$tRoman de Tristan.$lEnglish
1001#$aSaur, Karl-Otto,$cJr.
1001#$aAppleton, Victor,$cII
1000#$aMargaret,$cQueen, consort of James IV, King of Scotland,$d1489-1541
1000#$aAugustine,$cSaint, Bishop of Hippo
1000#$aBlack Foot,$cChief,$dd. 1877$c(Spirit)
[Subfield $c is repeated due to intervening subelements.]
4000#$aHausbuch,$cMeister des,$d15th cent.
4000#$aAmsterdam Cabinet,$cMaster of the,$d15th cent.
4001#$aWeiss, Judah Areyh,$cha-Levi
4001#$aL'Epée,$cabbé de$q(Charles-Michel),$d1712-1789
4003#$aKonbaung dynasty,$cBurma,$d1752-1885
1001#$aMassena, André,$cprince d'Essling,$d1758-1817
4001#$aE.,$cP. d',$d1758-1817

$d - Dates associated with a name

Dates of birth, death, or flourishing or any other date used with a name. A qualifier used with the date (e.g., b., d., ca., fl., ?, cent.) is also contained in subfield $d.

1001#$aLobb, Theophilus,$d1678-1763
1001#$aLuckombe, Philip,$dd. 1803
1001#$aSalant , Yosef Tsevi,$d1884 or 5-1981
1001#$aSirillo, Solomon ben Joseph,$dd. ca. 1558
1001#$aMalalas, John,$dca. 491-ca. 578
1001#$aMarcellus, Marcus Claudius,$dd. 45 B.C.
1001#$aLevi, James,$dfl. 1706-1739
1000#$aJoannes Aegidius,$cZamorensis,$d1240 or 41-ca. 1316
4001#$aCompton, Winny,$db. 1787

$e - Relator term

Designation of function that describes the relationship between a name and a work.

1001#$aBlum, Leon,$d1872-1950,$edefendant$tLeon Blum devant la Cour supreme, Riom.$lHebrew

$f - Date of a work

Date of publication used with a title of a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aDorst, Tankred.$tWorks.$f1985
1001#$aSperoni, Sperone,$d1500-1588.$tSelections.$f1982
4001#$aSperoni, Sperone,$d1500-1588.$tCanace, e scritti in sua difesa.$f1982

Date added parenthetically to a title to distinguish between identical titles entered under the same name is not separately subfield coded.

$g - Miscellaneous information

Data that is not more appropriately contained in another defined subfield. This subfield code is defined for consistency among the name fields. Subfield $g is unlikely to be used in an X00 field.

$h - Medium

Media qualifier used with a title of a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aWagner, Richard,$d1813-1883.$tOuvertüre.$hSound recording

$i - Relationship information   [400/500/700]

Designation of a relationship of the entity in a 400, 500, or 700 field to the 1XX entity in the record or a textual reference instruction phrase. For fields 400 and 500 the phrase may be system-generated from the field tag or from the codes defined for subfield $w (Control subfield). Subfield $i is appropriate only in fields 400, 500, and 700. Guidelines for using subfield $i in fields 400 and 500 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Guidelines for using subfield $i in field 700 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

$j - Attribution qualifier

Attribution information for names when the responsibility is unknown, uncertain, fictitious, or pseudonymous. Qualifiers should be used that follow the name of a known artist for the work.

1000#$aE.S.,$cMeister,$d15th cent.,$jFollower of
1001#$aReynolds, Joshua,$cSir,$d1723-1792,$jPupil of

$k - Form subheading

Occurs in the title portion of an X00 field. Form subheadings used with personal names include Selections.

1001#$aHusák, Gustáv.$tSpeeches.$kSelections
1001#$aAkhmatova, Anna Andreevna,$d1889-1966.$tSelections.$lEnglish & Russian.$f1985
[The word Selections is used as a uniform title and is contained in subfield $t.]
1000#$aDemetrius,$cof Phaleron,$db. 350 B.C.$tDe elocutione.$lRussian
4000#$wnnaa$aDemetrius,$cof Phaleron.$kSpurious and doubtful works.$tDe elocutione.$lRussian

$l - Language of a work

Name of a language(s) (or a term representing the language, e.g., Polyglot) used with a title of a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aCéline, Louis-Ferdinand,$d1894-1961.$tEntretiens avec le professeur Y.$lEnglish & French
1001#$aJacobs, Una.$tSonnen-Uhr.$lEnglish
1001#$aBrezina, Otokar,$d1868-1929.$tPoems.$lPolyglot

$m - Medium of performance for music

Term(s) designating the medium of performance used in a uniform title for a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aBeethoven, Ludwig van,$d1770-1827.$tSonatas,$mpiano.$kSelections
4001#$aSpeer, Daniel,$d1636-1707.$tSonatas,$mcornetts (2), trombones (3),$rC major

Subfield $m is not used for medium of performance information in a title page title used in a name/title heading.

1001#$aBeethoven, Ludwig van, $d1770-1827.$tPiano music.$kSelections
4001#$aBeethoven, Ludwig van,$d1770-1827.$tBagatelles, rondos and other shorter works for piano
[Title page title]

Multiple adjacent elements in a single medium of performance statement are contained in a single subfield $m. Subfield $m is repeated only when medium of performance statements are separated by subelements contained in other subfields.

1001#$aArne, Thomas Augustine,$d1710-1778.$tConcertos,$mkeyboard instrument, orchestra.$nNo. 3,$pCon spirito,$mkeyboard instrument
[Subfield $m is repeated due to intervening subelements.]

If the uniform title includes as part of the medium the abbreviation “acc.” or “unacc.,” the abbreviation is recorded in subfield $m. The abbreviation, “unacc.” is recorded in subfield $t when it is not an addition to a statement of medium. When a phrase such as “pianos (2),” “4 hands,” etc., follows a collective uniform title for a specific medium of performance, it is included in subfield $t.

Additional examples are under the descriptions of subfields $o and $r.

$n - Number of part/section of a work

Number designation for a part/section of a work used with a title in a name/title heading. Numbering is defined as an indication of sequencing in any form (e.g., Part 1, Supplement A, Book two). In music titles, the serial, opus, or thematic index number is contained in subfield $n.

1001#$aCrisp, Thomas,$d17th cent.$tBabel's-builders unmask't.$nPart 1
1000#$aOvid,$d43 B.C.-17 or 18 A.D.$tArs amatoria.$nLiber 1.$lEnglish
4001#$aTolkien, J. R. R.$q(John Roland Reuel),$d1892-1973.$tTwo Towers
[Part/section is both numbered and named.]
4001#$wnnaa$aHindemith, Paul,$d1895-1963.$tSonata,$mpiano, 4 hands$n(1938)
[Parenthetical date in music titles is a part/section of a work.]
4001#$aHindemith, Paul,$d1895-1963.$tVierhaendige Sonata fuer zwei Klaviere, 1938
[Date is not a part/section number.]

Multiple alternative numberings for a part/section (usually separated by commas) are contained in a single subfield $n.

4001#$aMendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix,$d1809-1847.$tQuartets,$mstrings,$nno. 7, op. 81

Numbering that indicates a subpart to the first noted part/section (usually separated by a period) is contained in a separate subfield $n.

4001#$aHindemith, Paul,$d1895-1963.$tPieces,$mstring orchestra,$nop. 44.$nNo. 4

$o - Arranged statement for music

Abbreviation arr. used in a uniform title for a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aTelemann, Georg Philipp,$d1681-1767.$tSonatas,$mflutes (2),$nop. 5;$oarr.
1001#$aSchubert, Franz,$d1797-1828.$tSongs.$kSelections;$oarr.

Subfield $o is not used for an arranged statement in a title page title used in a name/title heading.

1001#$aMozart, Wolfgang Amadeus,$d1756-1791.$tZauberflöte.$kSelections;$oarr.
4001#$aMozart, Wolfgang Amadeus,$d1756-1791.$tDuetts, for 2 violins or flutes, arr. from the celebrated opera Zauberflöte

$p - Name of part/section of a work

Name designation of a part or section of a work used with a title in a name/title heading.

1001#$aHindemith, Paul,$d1895-1963.$tNobilissima visione.$pMeditation
1001#$aPraetorius, Hieronymus,$d1560-1629.$tOpus musicum.$pCantiones sacrae.$pO vos omnes
1001#$aDebussy, Claude,$d1862-1918.$tPreludes,$mpiano,$nbook 1,$pCollines d'Anacapri
[Part/section is both numbered and named.]

$q - Fuller form of name

More complete form of the name that is in subfield $a.

1001#$aKalashnikov, S. D.$q(Sergei Dmitrievich)
1001#$aCurien, P.-L.$q(Pierre-Louis)
1000#$aClaudius$q(Claudius Ceccon)

$r - Key for music

Statement of key used in a uniform title for a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aBeethoven, Ludwig van,$d1770-1827.$tSonatas,$mpiano,$nno. 13, op. 27, no. 1,$rE major

Not used for a music key in a title page title used in a name/title heading.

10010$aSchubert, Franz,$d1797-1828.$tSymphonies,$nD. 589$rC major
40010$aSchubert, Franz,$d1797-1828.$tPetite symphonie en ut majeur
[Title page title]

$s - Version

Version, edition, etc., information used with a title of a work in a name/title heading.

1001#$aKelly, Michael,$d1762-1826.$tPizarro.$sVocal score
1000#$aRaimon,$d1940-$tSongs.$sTexts.$lSpanish & Catalan.$kSelections

$t - Title of a work

Title by which an item or a series is identified in a name/title heading.

1001#$aLaw, Felicia.$tWays we move
4001#$aLaw, Felicia.$tGetting around!
1001#$aIhara, Saikaku,$d1642-1693.$tSelections.$f1978
1000#$aSatprem,$d1923-$tGenèse du surhomme.$lEnglish
1000#$aLeonardo,$cda Vinci,$d1452-1519.$tLast Supper
1001#$aLewis, C. S.$q(Clive Staples),$d1898-1963.$tChronicles of Narnia (Collier)
1001#$aHoff, B. J.$q(Brenda Jane).$tDalton saga
1001#$aMozart, Wolfgang Amadeus,$d1756-1791.$tPiano music, pianos (2)
1001#$aDonizetti, Gaetano,$d1797-1848.$tPiano music, 4 hands

Additional examples are under the descriptions of subfields $e, $f, $k, $l, $m, $n, $o, $p, and $r.

$v - Form subdivision

Designates a specific kind or genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. Subfield $v is appropriate only when a form subject subdivision is added to a personal name heading to form an extended subject heading. Subfield $v is used for form terms when they function as indicated above; the terms are coded in subfield $x if they function as general subdivisions.

1000#$aGautama Buddha$vEarly works to 1800
1003#$aClark family$vFiction

$w - Control subfield   [400/500/700]

Codes in one or more character positions defined to control the display of information and specify relationships, restrictions, and status. Subfield $w is appropriate only in field 400, 500, and 700. Character position definitions and guidelines for applying the codes defined for subfield $w in field 400 and 500 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Character position definitions and guidelines for field 700 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

$x - General subdivision

Subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfield $v (Form subdivision), subfield $y (Chronological subdivision), or subfield $z (Geographic subdivision). Subfield $x is appropriate in the X00 fields only when a topical subject subdivision is added to a name or name/title heading to form an extended subject heading.

1001#$aBrunhoff, Jean de,$d1899-1937$xCharacters$xBabar
1001#$aTatlin, Vladimir Evgrafovich,$d1885-1953.$tMonument to the Third International$xCopying
1000#$aNapoleon$bI,$cEmperor of the French,$d1769-1821$xAssassination attempt, 1800 (December 24)
4001#$aWashington, George,$d1732-1799$xExpedition, 1753-1754

$y - Chronological subdivision

Subject subdivision that represents a period of time. Subfield $y is appropriate in the X00 fields only when a chronological subject subdivision is added to a name or name/title heading to form an extended subject heading.

1001#$aShakespeare, William,$d1564-1616$xCriticism and interpretation$xHistory$y18th century

$z - Geographic subdivision

Appropriate in the X00 fields only when a geographic subject subdivision is added to a name or name/title heading to form an extended subject heading.

1000#$aFrederick$bII,$cHoly Roman Emperor,$d1194-1250$xHomes and haunts$zItaly

$0 - Authority record control number or standard number   [500/700]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

7001#$wa$aDostoyevsky, Fyodor,$d1821-1881.$tCrime and punishment$0(DLC)sj##96005302

$1 - Real World Object URI   [500/700]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$2 - Source of heading or term   [700]

Code that identifies the source of a heading or term when the second indicator position contains value 7. Subfield $2 is appropriate only in field 700. Guidelines for applying subfield $2 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries—General Information section.

$4 - Relationship   [400/500/700]

Code or URI that specifies the relationship from the entity described in the record to the entity referenced in the field. Guidelines for using subfield $4 in fields 400 and 500 are provided in the Tracings and References-General Information section. Guidelines for using subfield $4 in field 700 are provided in the 7XX Heading Linking Entries-General Information section.

5001#$wr$iBased on (work)$4$aShakespeare, William,$d1564-1616$tHamlet$0

$5 - Institution to which field applies   [400/500/700]

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$6 - Linkage

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$8 - Field link and sequence number

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

670 - Source Data Found (R) - MARC 21 Authority

Library of Congress
Library of Congress [Photo by Library of Congress/Wikipedia]


Provide copy-specific information on a library resource (call number, shelf location, volumes held, and so forth).

[to be updated]

Library of Congress
Library of Congress [Photo by Mr. Gray/Wikipedia]


MARC records containing classification data. For example, the Library of Congress Classification has been encoded using the MARC 21 Classification format.

[to be updated]

Library of Congress
Library of Congress [Photo by Ricardo Gomez Angel/Unsplash]


MARC records describing a service-providing agency, such as a local homeless shelter or tax assistance provider.

[to be updated]


Video 1

Title: MARC Bibliographic basics

Creator: OCLCTraining

Original Published Date: Dec 10, 2018

Runtime: 6:36  minutes



---------- Forwarded message ---------
Date: Tue, Jul 28, 2020 at 5:52 PM
Subject: [SACOLIST] Announcement: New coding in proposals
To: <>

Hello SACO members,

This message details new coding that catalogers in SACO institutions are to use when making proposals for subject headings, genre/form terms, and medium of performance terms. These new instructions support LC’s linked data efforts, and are effective immediately.

According to longstanding policy, field 670 subfield $a contains the LC bibliographic record control number (i.e., the LCCN) if applicable, the main entry, the title, and the publication date of the work. 

The LCCN will now be coded in subfield $w, which will be the final element of the field. The LCCN is preceded by LC’s MARC organization code, DLC, enclosed in parentheses. Example:

            Citation formatted according to former policy:
670 ## $a Work cat: 2015300502: Finding Julia, 2014: $b p. 13 (Bollinger family) p. 11 (Bollinger County, Missouri was named after George Frederick Bollinger, b. 1770. His German ancestors migrated from Zurich, Switzerland to Philadelphia in 1738)

            Citation formatted according to new policy:
670 ## $a Work cat: Finding Julia, 2014: $b p. 13 (Bollinger family) p. 11 (Bollinger County, Missouri was named after George Frederick Bollinger, b. 1770. His German ancestors migrated from Zurich, Switzerland to Philadelphia in 1738) $w (DLC)2015300502

Catalogers in SACO institutions must provide the LCCN in 670 subfield $w when the proposal is made for a CIP cataloged in LC’s CIP Partnership Program.

“Work cat” citations in other SACO proposals may contain a single subfield $w that reflects either the local control number of the SACO institution or a bibliographic utility control number (e.g., the OCLC number). If provided, the number should be preceded by the MARC organizational code to which the control number applies (e.g., $w (OCoLC)236328585). Subfield $w is not required for SACO proposals, other than for those proposals made to support CIP cataloging.

Catalogers making a proposal to revise an existing record should code the new “Work cat.” citation in the new way, but should not revise the existing citations. Do not revise citations in existing authority records to move to subfield $w an LCCN that appears in subfield $a, nor to add a control number to a citation that does not currently include a control number.

The new coding is required only in “Work cat.” citations, not in citations for reference sources. The new policy affects only proposals for subject headings, genre/form terms, and medium of performance terms. It does not impact name authority records.

Beginning September 1, PTCP will return miscoded proposals to catalogers for correction before the proposal will be scheduled for a list.

The new policy on 670 subfield $w is documented in Subject Headings Manual (SHM) H 200 sec. 9.a., and the templates in the Proposal System have been updated to remind catalogers to use the new subfield. 




1. Wikipedia. MARC standards. (accessed October 10, 2017)

2. Library of Congress. MARC Standards (accessed October 10, 2017)

3. IFLA. Best Practice for National Bibliographic Agencies in a Digital Age  (accessed October 10, 2017)

4. Library of Congress. NACO Participants Manual.'Manual-20200708.pdf (August 5, 2020).

5. Library of Congress. MARC 21 Format for Authority Data. (August 5, 2020).

6. Library of Congress. X00 - Personal Names-General Information. (accessed October 11, 2020).