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Hindi Language Literature and Indology: Resources and Information for Librarians

Hindi Language Literature and Indology: Resources and Information for Librarians

A list of resources and information about Hindi language, Hindi literature, and Indology for librarians, libraries, scholars, and researchers. This will especially be useful for the libraries of universities in the United States, European countries, and other countries that have the South Asian Studies Department which provides courses in Hindi language, literature, and Indology.


  • Hindi Language and Literature - Introduction and History
    • Useful Websites On Hindi Language And Literature
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Alternative Names 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Dialects 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Classification
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Writing System
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Geographical Region Covered by Language
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Number of Speakers
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Annual Publishing Output
    • Articles in Blogs and Magazines
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Major Publishing Centers
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Major Newspapers (With City)
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Major Journals and Magazines 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Literary Academies Societies etc.
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Publishers and Distributors
    • List of Hindi Publishers & Distributors
  • Hindi Language and Literature - National-level / Tier 1 Universities 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Smaller / Regional / Tier 2 and 3 Universities 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Literary Prizes 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Important political/social movements (both legal and underground) that use the language to publish information 
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Important Literary Authors
    • Important Literary Authors
    • Important Literary Writers of Hindi Language and Literature on Wikipedia
    • Online Videos Documentaries of Hindi Authors
    • Hindi Literary Authors
    • Personal Websites & Blogs Of Hindi Writers
    • Online Catalogs for Hindi Authors
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Important People at National Level
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Current hot topics in which there are language publications
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Major Saints / Maths / Temples
    • Temples / Maths
    • Saints
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Major Lyricists
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Hindi Motion Pictures Industry
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Documentaries
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Online Dictionaries
  • Hindi Language and Literature - Hindi Books-Hindi Book Reviews-Hindi Literary News
    • Hindi Books
    • Library and Publisher Catalogs for Hindi Books
    • Hindi Book Reviews
    • Hindi Literary News
  • Indology Study and Research Resources


Hindi is the name given to an Indo-Aryan language, or a dialect continuum of languages, spoken in northern and central India (the "Hindi belt") Native speakers of Hindi dialects between them account for 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). As defined in the Constitution, Hindi is one of the two official languages of communication (English being the other) for India's federal government and is one of the 22 scheduled languages specified in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.Official Hindi is often described as Standard Hindi, which along with English, is used for administration of the central government. Hindustani or Standard Hindi is also an official language of Fiji. Standard Hindi is a sanskritised register derived from the khari boli dialect. Urdu is a different, persianised register of the same dialect.

History: Like many other modern Indian languages, Hindi has evolved from Sanskrit, by way of the Middle Indo-Aryan Prakrit languages and Apabhramsha of the Middle Ages. Though there is no consensus for a specific time, Hindi originated as local dialects such as Braj, Awadhi and finally Khari Boli after the turn of tenth century.[9] In the span of nearly a thousand years of Muslim influence, such as when Muslim rulers controlled much of northern India during the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, many Persian and Arabic words were absorbed into khari boli and was called Urdu. Since almost all Arabic words came via Persian, they do not preserve the original phonology of Arabic. [Source: Wikipedia]

Useful Websites On Hindi Language And Literature

History of Hindi Grammar [Search हिन्दी व्याकरण का इतिहास in Hindi Wikipedia]

Description of Hindi Grammar [Search हिन्दी व्याकरण in Hindi Wikipedia]

Hindi Grammar - हिंदी भाषा को शुद्ध रूप में लिखने और बोलने संबंधी नियमों को जाने के लिए हिंदी व्याकरण अच्छे तरीके से समझना बहुत जरूरी होता है और यह Website आपको हिंदी व्याकरण को समझाने में पूरी तरह से मदद करेगी। यहां हिंदी व्याकरण से संबंधित सभी टॉपिक को छोटे-छोटे भागों में वर्गीकृत करके उदाहरण सहित समझाया गया है। तो दोस्तों का मुख्य उद्देश्य है आसान तरीके से हिंदी व्याकरण को समझने में आप सब को सहयोग पहुंचाना ।

Hindi Literature in Wikipedia

Hindi Literature [Search हिंदी साहित्य in Hindi Wikipedia]

International Development of Modern Hindi [Search आधुनिक हिंदी का अंतर्राष्ट्रीय विकास in Hindi Wikipedia]

History of Modern Hindi Prose Literature [Search आधुनिक हिंदी गद्य का इतिहास in Hindi Wikipedia]

History of Modern Hindi Poetic Literature [Search आधुनिक हिंदी पद्य का इतिहास in Hindi Wikipedia]

Migrant Hindi Literature [Search प्रवासी हिन्दी साहित्य in Hindi Wikipedia]

Chayawadi Period of Hindi Literature [Search छायावादी युग in Hindi Wikipedia]

Dalit Literature [Search दलित साहित्य in Hindi Wikipedia]

Children's Literature [Search हिन्दी में बाल साहित्य in Hindi Wikipedia]


Khari Boli, Khadi Boli


Formal vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has four varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, Standard Hindi); Urdu; Dakhini; Rekhta. State language of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh. Languages and dialects in the Western Hindi group are Hindustani, Haryanvi, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji, Bundeli; see separate entries. [Source: Wikipedia]

Hindi Dialects in Wikipedia

Hindi Language -- Description from Ethnologue

Hindi Dialects - [Search हिंदी की विभिन्न बोलियाँ और उनका साहित्य in Hindi Wikipedia]

Magahi Language and Literature in Wikipedia

Magahi Language and Literature in Ethnologue

Magahi Bhasha evam Sahitya (a blog on Magahi Language and Literature)

Maithili Language and Literature in Wikipedia

Maithili Language and Literature in Ethnologue


Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani

Hindi Language -- Description from Ethnologue


Devanagari, Urdu, Kaithi, Latin, and several regional scripts.


Throughout northern India: Delhi; Uttar Pradesh; Uttaranchal; Rajasthan; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; northern Bihar; Himachal Pradesh. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Belize, Botswana, Germany, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Yemen, Zambia.


Ethnologue: 180,000,000 in India (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 180,764,791. Ethnic population: 363,839,000

Census of India: 422,048,642

Wikipedia: ~ 500–680 million


Around 20,000-25,000
Note: India is 7th largest publisher in world out of which 25% of titles are published in Hindi

Articles in Blogs and Magazines

Publishing in India Today: 19,000 Publishers, 90,000 Titles, Many Opportunities (Publishing Perspectives; July 6, 2011) Part 1 of our look at India’s publishing industry reveals rising challenges for editorial departments, new business models for distribution, and the rise of agenting in India.
Excerpt from the article: The publishing industry in South Asia as a whole, and India in particular, has never seen better times. There has been an astounding increase in the number of titles originating from and being produced in the region, in addition to large-scale investment in retail, fresh marketing tools and increasing standards of book production. The Indian scenario is particularly unique. With a whopping 550 million people below the age of 30, and with a significant and consumerist middle class, book sales in the country could well surpass all expectations.
Amidst this excitement, one still finds a fractured infrastructure that presents a huge challenge and a consequent opportunity for the industry. First, there is the challenge of finding interested and trained professionals. Publishing was, and in many ways still is, a family-owned and family-run business, which means that many people in the profession were literally born into publishing.

Excerpt from the article: In part 2 of our series on “Publishing in India Today” we consider India’s growing exposure to the international book markets, challenges to copyright law, the continuing problem of piracy and Indian e-books.
Of the many issues that are currently bringing together the publishing community in India, the issue that has generated one of the most significant responses is the proposed amendments to the country’s copyright law. Though there is a clear divide between people for and against it, publishers almost unanimously oppose the amendment.
As proposed, the amendment sanctions parallel imports, which allow the import of multiple editions of books into the Indian market, rendering the whole point of territorial rights a bit useless.


Bihar: Patna

Chhattisgarh: Raipur

Delhi: New Delhi

Haryana: Panchkula, Rohtak

Jharkhand: Ranchi

Madhya Pradesh: Bhopal, Indore, Ujjain

Rajasthan: Jaipur

Uttar Pradesh: Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Ghaziabad, Meerut

Uttaranchal: Deharadun


Hindi has 25% of the total newspaper circulation in India. Since 2007 more and more newspapers are launching their Hindi edition in India because there has been a surge in Hindi readership.

Aaj : Lucknow, Allahabad, and some other cities of North India

Amar Ujala : 18 editions across India in 7 states and 1 union territory. UP, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Chandigarh, New Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Haryana

Daily Hindi Milap : Hyderabad

Dainik Bhaskar : Dainik Bhaskar is a Hindi-language daily newspaper of India. It was started in year 1958 from Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. Currently it is published from many cities of North and Central India. The Main Cities Include : Bhopal, Indore, New Delhi, Lucknow, Nagpur, Gwalior, Jaipur Ajmer, Jabalpur, Varanasi, Ahemedabad

Dainik Jagaran : Cutting across artificial boundaries of caste, religion, culture and creed Dainik Jagran unites India today across 11 states with 32 editions and with a phenomenal readership of 56.1 mn as per the IRS (Round II 2008). Dainik Jagran covers 11 states of India: Delhi, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal.
Among all Hindi newspapers Dainik Jagaran has a very interesting section named Sahitya. This page is distributed in 5 parts, namely, Sahitya Samachar (literary news), Sahityika Kritiyam, Sakshatkar, Paricharcha, and Pustak Samiksha (book reviews) . This is an interesting page and it is good to view it once a week to keep abreast with the latest developments in Hindi literature. 

Deshbandhu : National edition, Raipur, Bilaspur, Bhopal

Hindustan : Delhi, Patna, Lucknow, Ranchi

Nai Duniya : Indore, Jabalpur, Bhopal, Gwalior, Raipur, Delhi, Bilaspur,

Navbharat Times : Navbharat Times is the largest Hindi Daily in Delhi, Indore and Bombay. It is published by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., the largest media group in India. This group is better known as The Times Group and is also the publisher of largest English daily The Times of India. Navbharat Times has a very interesting section named साहित्य संसार which is under विचार मंच section. This page is distributed in following sections: कृतियां l हलचल l नई किताबें l किताब लाजवाब . This is an interesting page and it is good to view it once a week to keep abreast with the latest developments in Hindi literature.

Prabhat Khabar : Prabhat Khabar is a Hindi language newspaper published daily in Jharkhand in northern India. The newspaper is circulated in several states in India, including Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. It was founded in August 1984 in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand.

Punjab Kesari : Punjab Kesari is a Hindi-language newspaper published from many centres in Punjab and Haryana in India. It claims itself to be the largest selling Hindi daily in India.

Rajasthan Patrika : Rajasthan Patrika is printed from the following places: Jaipur, Jodhpur, Sikar, Sriganganganagar, Udaipur, Alwar, Bikaner, Banswara, Ajmer, Pali, Kota, Bhilwara, Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Bangalore, Surat, Kolkatta

Rashtriya Sahara : Patna, Delhi, Dehradun, Lucknow, Jaipur

Hindi Newspapers (Wikipedia)


Name - Frequency - Genre

Abhivyakti weekly literary magazine

Anubhuti weekly literary magazine

Argalaa quarterly literary magazine 

Bharat Darshan literary magazine

Gaveshana quarterly magazine of literature language and linguistics by Kendriya Hindi Sansthan

Gyanodaya monthly literary magazine of Bharatiya Jnanpith

Hans monthly Hindi literature

India Today weekly newsmagazine

Kadambini monthly literary magazine

Kathadesh monthly literature, culture, and arts

Kavita Kosh literary magazine

Mukta monthly youth magazine

Outlook Saptahik weekly newsmagazine

Prerna monthly literary magazine

Sahitya Kunj literary magazine

Srijangatha literary magazine

Tadbhav quarterly literature, culture

Katha Chakra (Reviews and description of Hindi literary magazines) (कथा चक्र : हिंदी में प्रकाशित साहित्यिक पत्रिकाओं की संक्षिप्त समीक्षा पढ़ें व उससे संबंधित जानकारी प्राप्त करें)

List of Hindi Magazines Available on Internet [Search अन्तरजाल पर स्थित हिन्दी पत्रिकाएँ in Hindi Wikipedia

List of Hindi Literary Magazines [Search हिन्दी की साहित्यिक पत्रिकायें in Hindi Wikipedia]


Links to Hindi Literary Academies, Associations, Societies, Schools, Universities, etc.

Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad (no website, see books by Bihar Rashtrabhasha Parishad)

Links from Hindi Wikipedia [Search हिन्दी सेवी संस्थाएँ]


List of Hindi Commercial Publishers-1 [Search श्रेणी:हिन्दी प्रकाशक in Hindi Wikipedia]

List of Hindi Commercial Publishers-2 [Search हिंदी प्रकाशक सूची in Hindi Wikipedia]

List of Hindi Publishers & Distributors

B.R.Publishing Corporation

Daya Publishing House

Kalpaz Publications

Kitabghar Prakashan

Pratibha Prakashan


Aligarh Muslim University

Banaras Hindu University

Delhi University (or University of Delhi)

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi University (or) Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya

Vishwa Bharati University


Allahabad University (or University of Allahabad)

Hyderabad University (or University of Hyderabad)

Kanpur University (or Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur)

Lucknow University (or University of Lucknow)

Mumbai University (or University of Mumbai)

Raipur University (or Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur)


Akhila Bharatiya Muktibodh Puraskar (Madhya Pradesh Govt.)

Arya Smriti Sahitya Samman (Kitabghar Prakashan)

Ayodhya Prasad Khatri Award/Prize 

Bharatbhushan Agarwal Puraskar

Bhasha Samman

Chakallas Prize of Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Parishad (मध्य प्रदेश साहित्य परिषद् का चकल्लस पुरस्कार)

Chandradev Sharma Samman (Rajasthan Sahitya Akademi)

Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma Puraskar (Madhya Pradesh Hindi Granth Akademi)

Dushyant Puraskar (Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Akademi)

Girijakumar Mathur Puraskar (गिरिजाकुमार माथुर पुरस्कार)

Indu Sharma Katha Award (London) (इंदु शर्मा कथा सम्मान)

Kalidas Puraskar

Kamleshwar Katha Puraskar (कमलेश्वर कथा पुरस्कार)

Lohiya Ativishisht Samman (Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan)

Makhanlal Chaturvedi Puraskar (माखनलाल चतुर्वेदी पुरस्कार)

Mira Puraskar (Rajasthan Sahitya Akademi)

Nagarjun Puraskar (Highest award for poetic works by the Govt. of Bihar)

Padumlal Punnalal Bakhshi Samman (Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Akademi)

Paharua Samman (Bharatendu Akademi, Varanasi)

Pan. Deendayal Upadhyay Award (पं दीनदयाल उपाध्याय पुरस्कार) (Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan))

Parimal Award/Prize 

Premchand Fellowships

Premchand Samman

Rajkamal Prakashan Kriti Samman (राजकमल प्रकाशन कृति सम्मान)

Ramakant Smriti Kahani Puraskar (रमाकान्त स्मृति कहानी पुरस्कार)

Ramvilas Sharma Award/Prize 

Rangeya Raghav Samman (Rajastha Sahitya Akademi)

Rashtriya Muktibodh Puraskara (Madya Pradesh Sahitya Akademi)

Raza Award/Prize 

Sahitya Bhushan Samman (Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan)

Sahitya Sammelana Award

Sahityakar Samman (Hindi Akademi, Delhi)

Sant Namdev Puraskar (Maharashtra Hindi Sahitya Akademi)

Saraswati Samman (Wikipedia)

Sarjana Puraskar (Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan)

Shamsher Samman (शमशेर सम्मान)

Sheela Siddhantkar Award/Prize 

Shrikant Varma Award/Prize 

Subhadra Kumari Chauhan Puraskar (Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Parishad)

Sudhindra Puraskar (Rajasthan Sahitya Akademi)

Sur Puraskar (Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan)

Vagishvari Puraskar (Madhya Pradesh Hindi Sahitya Sammelan)

Vanamali Award/Prize

Vijaydev Narain Sahi Puraskar (Devnagari: विजयदेव नारायण साही पुरस्कार)

Viswa Hindi Sammelan Award

Vyas Samman (Wikipedia)

Yashpal Samman or Yashpal Puraskar (Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan)

Literary Awards in Hindi Wikipedia [Search श्रेणी:साहित्य पुरस्कार]


Dalit movement

Chipko movement

Save Silent Valley

Narmada Bachao Andolan

Koel Karo

Chattisgarh Mukti Morcha

Jharkhand movement for a separate state

Arya Samaj movement

Appiko movement

Rajneesh movement

Indian independence movement

The Indian Emergency of 25 June 1975 – 21 March 1977


Important Literary Authors

Description chiefly taken from Wikipedia (

1. Munshi Premchand (1880-1936) was the foremost novelist in Hindi and Urdu. His last completed novel in Hindi, also acclaimed as his finest, was Godan (The Gift of a Cow, 1936). The greatness of Godan lies in its unparalleled and indepth depiction of the Indian rural milieu. It has been translated into almost all the major Indian languages as well as many foreign languages. Premchand's other epic novels include Rangabhumi (The Theatre or Arena, 1925) and Karmabhumi (Arena of Action,1932) where the focus is on the nationalist struggle of the country.

2. Maithili Sharan Gupt (1886-1964) is considered as one of the pioneers of 'Khari Boli' (plain dialect) poetry and the author of the first ever epic in modern Hindi literature. In his literary career spanning 57 years, Gupt has written over sixty works, comprising forty nine collections and seventeen translations of poetry and drama. He was perhaps, the only poet in Independent India to be honoured with the title 'National Poet'. In Saket (Ayodhya, 1932), the poet draws on the mythological tale of Rama, falling back heavily on Tulasidas's epic Ramcharitamanas. Also evident are influences of Valmiki's Ramayana, Bhavabhuti's play Uttara Rama Charita, Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa and the Mahabharata of Vyasa.

3. Jaishankar Prasad (1889-1937) is one of the pioneers of the Hindi literary movement called Chayavada. Lehar (Wave), his last collection of poems was published before his great poem, Kamayani (1936), and clearly demonstrates his lyrical and narrative mastery. Alongwith Ansu (Tears), an earlier long poem and Kamana, an allegorical play, Lehar forms a prelude to Kamayani, an allegorical epic poem. His unique sense of history and remarkable insight into the spiritual malady that plagues modern civilisation, set Jaishankar Prasad apart from his poetic peers.

4. Suryakant Tripathi (1899-1961) achieved fame through his pen-name 'Nirala' (the unique), deriving inspiration from the best minds of the Indian Renaissance, then flourishing in Bengal. Nirala was a born genius and sans formal education, studied Indian classics, philosophy and culture. Deeply rooted in Indian culture, he stood against the Establishment, gaining recognition as a poet of revolt. Besides twelve collections of poetry, which included Apara (The Earthly Knowledge, 1947) Nirala also penned six novels, many short stories, essays and criticism, and also translated from Sanskrit and Bengali. Renowned for his prose, Nirala is also associated with bringing in free verse in the modern era.

5. Sumitranandan Pant (1900-77), author of twenty eight published works including poetry, verse plays and essays, was honoured with the prestigious Padma Bhushan (1961), Jnanpith (1968), Sahitya Akademi and Soviet Land-Nehru Awards for his immense contribution to the Hindi literary scene. His poetry epitomised the Indian thought of Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram (the true, the good, the beautiful). A prominent of the Chayavada movement, Pant's greatest poems were penned during this period. When the movement was on the decline, Pant was the poet who effortlessly made the transition from aesthetic mysticism to the temporal, doing so in terms of the Marxist ideology. This phase later gave way to the larger humanism of Aurobindo. Thus in his later writings, Pant the aesthete emerged as a thinker, philosopher and humanist. His finest work, by far, is Pallav, a collection of thirty two poems written between 1918 and 1925.

6. Yashpal (1903-76) is renowned for Jhutha Sach (The False Truth, 1958-60), regarded as the finest Hindi novel written on the chaotic Indian scenario which followed closely on the heels of the Partition. A Marxist till the very end, Yashpal's ideology immensely influenced his writings. He has forty two books to his credit, excluding translated works.

7. Hazariprasad Dwivedi (1907-79), a famous novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar, penned numerous novels, collections of essays and a historical outline of Hindi literature. His principal works include Kabir, and Banabhatta Ki Atmakatha (The Autobiography of Banabhatta, 1946), a literary depiction of the life and times of the classical poet. The latter is in the mode of a fiction within fiction. The author pretends to have accidentally found the entire work, his own role in creating it being 'minimal'.

8. Mahadevi Verma (1907-87) was educated in Allahabad, where she founded the 'Prayag Mahila Vidyapitha', promoting the education of girls. An active freedom fighter, Mahadevi Verma is regarded as one of the four pillars of the great Romantic movement in modern Hindi poetry, Chayavada, the remaining three being Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Jaishankar Prasad and Sumitranandan Pant. She is renowned for her book of memoirs, Atita Ke Chalcitra (The Moving Frames of the Past) and Smriti Ki Rekhayen (The Lines of Memory). Her poetic canvas boasts Dipshikha (The Flame of an Earthen Lamp, 1942), a book comprising fifty one lyrics, all of which carry the maturity of expression and intense mystical quality peculiar to this great artiste. Her mysticism led to the birth of a movement called Rahasyavada. Mahadevi Verma has often been compared with Mira Bai, the great 16th century devotional poetess, in her lyrical mysticism and deep devotional offerings to the Almighty.

9. Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' (1908-74) emerged as rebellious poet with his nationalist poetry in pre-Independence days. After the country's Independence , he was often referred to as the national poet of India, though officially the title belonged to Maithili Sharan Gupt. He belongs to the generation immediately following the Chayavadi (romantic) poets. Dinkar is renowned for his personal lyrics, apart from a few historical and nationalist compositions. His verse play, Urvashi, (1961)is a dramatic departure from his earlier poetry of social concern, as it deals with love and passion, the earthy and the sublime, and man-woman relationship transcending the physical. A Jnanpith Award winner (1972), the book is the culmination of a poet's spiritual journey. It is a landmark document involving introspection and philosophical delving into the Kamadhyatma, The Metaphysic of Desire.

10. Nagarjun (b. 1911), is amjor Hindi poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies and travelogues. His Pratinidhi Kavitayen (A Collection of Representative Poems, 1984)was written over four decades. It contains almost eighty Hindi poems as well as a small section of poetry in Maithili, his mother-tongue, where he is better known as Baidyanath Mishra 'Yatri'. Nagarjun creates poetry out of the most mundane things in life, employing the language of everyday speech and thus bringing poetry as an art form closer to the common man. The most popular practising Hindi poet in the last decades of the twentieth century, Nagarjun is considered as the only poet, after Tulsidas, to have an audience ranging from the rural sections of society to the elitist gatherings.

11. S. H. Vatsyayan (1911-87), (Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayana), popularly known by his pen-name 'Ajneya' or Agyeya, was a pioneer of modern trends not only in the realm of poetry, but also fiction, criticism and journalism in Hindi. An eminent freedm fighter, Ajneya has to his credit sixteen volumes of poetry, three novels, travelogues and several volumes of short stories and essays. He edited the Saptak series which triggered new trends in Hindi poetry, known a 'Nai Kavita'. He edited many literary journals and also launched his own Hindi weekly, Dinaman, thus establishing new standards in the field of Hindi journalism.Ajneya was honoured with the Sahitya Akademi Award, Jnanpith Award, Bharatbharati Award and the internationally reputed Golden Wreath Award for poetry.His famous works include Amgan Ke Par Dvara (The Door Beyond the Courtyard) and a cycle of poems, Chakranta Shila.

12. Vishnu Prabhakar (b. 1912), with several short stories, novels, plays and travelogues to his credit, won the Sahitya Akademi Award for his novel, Ardhanarishwara (The Androgynous God or Shiva). His biography of the eminent Bengali novelist, Saratchandra Chatterjee, Awara Masiha (Vagabond Prophet, 1974) is however considered not only, to be his magnum opus, but also one of the three best Hindi biographies written so far. Awara Masiha, a subtle combination of fact and fiction, took Prabhakar around fouteen years to finish.

13. Phanishwar Nath 'Renu' (1921-77), popularly known as Renu, is one of the great Hindi novelists of the post-Premchand era. An active political activist, one of Renu's masterpieces is Maila Anchal (The Soiled Border, 1954), a social novel that depicts the life of a region and its people, the backward and the deprived. A trailblazer in the post-Premchand period, the novel radically changed the structure and narrative style in Hindi novels. The distinct feature in the novel is that it does not possess a structured plot or story in the conventional sense. After Premchand's Godan, Maila Anchal is regarded as the most significant Hindi novel.

14. Shrilal Shukla (b.1925), an IAS officer, is renowned for his objective and purposive satire in contemporary Hindi fiction. In 1957, he published his first novel, Sooni Ghat ka Sooraj (The Sun of a Desolate Valley) followed by a series of satires Amgada Ka Pamva (Angada's Foot) in 1958. His Raag Darbari (Melody of the Court, one of the ragas, 1968) is the first satirical novel of its kind in Hindi spanning a wide spectrum of post-Independence rural India, specifically Avadh. It was Shrilal Shukla who took wit, irony and sarcasm to great heights in Hindi literature. Raag Darbari is generously peppered with folk witticisms of Avadhi, the powerful dialect in which Tulasidas, Malik Mohammad Jayasi and many Sufi poets made their mark.

15. Mohan Rakesh (1925-72) was one of the pioneers of the Nai Kahani movement in Hindi in the 1950s. Rakesh made significant contribution to various genres, like nove, short story, travelogue, criticism, memoirs and drama. His Ashadha Ka Ek Din (One Day in The Rainy Month of Ashadha, 1958) is a historical play suggestive of the personal dilemmas of a present day writer. Ashadha Ka Ek Din is one of the first major original plays that revived the Hindi stage in the 1960s. Among his other plays is, Adhe Adhure (The Incomplete Ones) is extremely popular with the modern middle-class audiences, and Lehron Ke Rajhamsa (The Swans of the Waves), a close study of the renunciation of the Buddha, and its effect on his own people.

16. Dharmavir Bharati (b. 1926) is a renowned poet, fictionist and editor. Essentially a romantic humanist, Bharati is famous for his poignant treatment of first love, his lyricism and humanistic vision. One of his famous works is Andha Yuga (The Blind Age or The Age of Darkness), one of the most celebrated modern Hindi plays. Bharati has been honoured with some of the highest literary and State awards, including the Padma Shri.

17. Nirmal Verma (b.1929) together with Mohan Rakesh, Bhisham Sahni, Kamleshwar, Amarkant and others, is credited with introducing and establishing the Nai Kahani (the modernist new short story) in Hindi literature. His technical wizardry and cosmopolitan sensibility render Nirmal Verma a one-of-a-kind artiste. Although he has published four novels, six collections of essays and cultural criticism, it is his short stories that beautifully bring out his ethereal sensitivity, lyricism and profound compassion. Kavve aur Kala Paani (Crows and the Black Waters, 1983) translated as The Crows of Deliverance, comprises seven of Verma's latest stories, which deal with the spiritual ills that afflict his characters, mostly from the urban middle class.

Important Literary Writers of Hindi Language and Literature on Wikipedia

List of Hindi Poets [Search हिन्दी कवि in Hindi Wikipedia]

Hindi Prose Authors [Search हिन्दी गद्यकार in Hindi Wikipedia]

Hindi Dramatists and Playwright [Search हिन्दी नाटककार in Hindi Wikipedia]

List of Hindi Writers [Search हिंदी लेखकों की सूची in Hindi Wikipedia]

Online Videos Documentaries of Hindi Authors

Lakshmi Narain Lal (लक्ष्मीनारायण लाल)

Manoj Singh (मनोज सिंह)

Usha Bhatnagar

Online Catalogs for Hindi Authors

VIAF: The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF is a joint project of several national libraries, implemented and hosted by OCLC. The project's goal is to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking the authority files of national libraries, and then making that information available on the Web)
Library of Congress Authorities (Using Library of Congress Authorities, you can browse and view authority headings for Subject, Name, Title and Name/Title combinations; and download authority records in MARC format for use in a local library system. This service is offered free of charge)


Amitabh Bachchan (Motion pictures industry)

Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Politics)

Bismillah Khan (Music)

Deepak Chaurasia (Media)

Habib Tanveer (Theater)

Prabhu Chawla (Media)

Rahul Gandhi (Politics)

Vinod Dua (Media)


Nadigram (not so well covered in English Press)

Satyam fraud (covered in English Press)

Racist attack on Indians in Australia (covered in English Press)


Temples / Maths

Anandeshwar Mandir, Kanpur

Arya Samaj

Bamleshwari temple - Dongargarh

BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Delhi

Belon Temple, Belon

Belur Math

Bhairav Temple , Delhi

Bhoramdeo temple

Champakeshwar Mahadev temple - Champaran

Chattarpur Temple

Chinmaya Mission

Danteshwari temple - Dantewada

Dudhadhari Math - Raipur

Durga Temple

Gandheshwar temple - Sirpur

Gaudiya Math

Gauri Shankar Mandir, Chandni Chowk

Gorakhnath Temple and Math

Gorakhnath Temple, Gorakhpur

Hanuman Dhara, Chitrakoot

Hanuman Mandir, Panki, Kanpur

Hanuman Satu, Lucknow

Hanuman Temple

Hanumangarhi, Ayodhya

Hariharnath Temple Sonepur, Bihar, India

ISKON Temple

J K Temple, Kanpur

Jagannath Temple

Kalka Mandir, Delhi

Kanchi matha

Kashi Mutt

Kashi Vishwanath Temple

Krishnajanmabhoomi, Mathura


Kurkihar Temple

Lakshman temple - Sirpur

Laxminarayan Temple

Mahamaya Temple - Bilaspur,

Mahavir Temple, Patna

Mandar Hill Temple

Mangalagauri Temple, Gaya

Mundesvari Temple, Bhabua

Parasnath Temple

Radha Dait, vaijayanti,Gyan Gudri ,Vrindavan

Radha Raman, Vrindavan

Raj Rajeswari Jai Kela Devi Mandir, Firozabad

Rajiv Lochan temple - Rajim

Ramakrishna Math

Ramjanmabhoomi, Ayodhya

Ramkrishna Mattha, Lucknow

Sai Baba Mandir

Sarnath, Varanasi

Shirdi Sai Baba movement

Shree Hanuman Mandir, Firozabad

Shri Banke Bihari, Vrindavan

Shri Laxminarayan Mandir Hanumankund, Ayodhya

Sri Aurobindo Ashram

Sri Ramakrishna Temple

Swaminarayan Akshardham (World's largest Hindu Temple Complex)[1]

Uttara Swami Malai Temple

Vindhyachal, Mirzapur

Vishnupad Temple, Gaya, India


Jagadguru Mahaprabhu Shri Vallabhacharya, a great saint who was the follower of Vishnuswami Sampradaya (Vaishnavism). He proved the principle of "Shuddha Adwaita Brahmavada" meaning pure adwaita Brahmavada based on Veda. He showed the path of devotion to the world and taught that in this time of "Kaliyuga" self-less surrender to the lotus feet of Lord Krishna is the only thing a soul should do.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534), famous Bengali Saint known for his ecstatic devotion to Krishna. Original founder of the modern Hare Krishna movement

Paramahansa Yogananda (January 5, 1893 — March 7, 1952), a modern day saint who brought the spiritual science of Kriya Yoga to the west, successfully disseminating eastern wisdom all over North America and Europe, and personally initiating many thousands of spiritual aspirants. Disciple of Sri Yukteswar Giri.

Raghavendra Swami, one of the most famous Hindu saints was believed to have performed miracles during his lifetime and continues to bless his devotees. He espoused Vaishnavism monotheism (worship of Vishnu as Supreme God) and Dvaita philosophy.

Shri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Bhagawan Ramana Maharshi

Jagadguru Sankaracharya of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham. Revered by many as an avatara of Adi Sankara 

Akkalkot Niwasi Shree Swami Samarth (around 1275 A.D) considered to be the Guru of Great Saints, supposed to be the direct manifestation of the supreme power - God.

Shirdi Sai Baba (c. 1838 - October 15, 1918) was an Indian fakir/guru who is regarded by his Hindu and Muslim followers as a saint.

Tukaram was a great saint who was believed to have performed miracles and was a devotee of Krishna.

Brahma Chaitanya, the saint of Gondawali who was a great devotee of Ram


Anand Bakshi


Dev Kohli

Gulshan Bawra


Harivanshrai Bachchan

Hasrat Jaipuri


Javed Akhtar

Kaifi Azmi

Majrooh Sultanpuri

Maya Govind Mehboob

Nida Fazli

Sahir Ludhianvi



Shakeel Badayuni


Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the Indian film industry. Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest in the world. The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Bollywood is generally referred to as Hindi cinema, though frequent use of poetic Urdu words is fairly common. There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. It is not uncommon to see films that feature dialogue with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences.

Popular films made in the past 10 years that have won awards or created headlines:


Bhool Bhulaiyaa

Bunty Aur Babli

Chak De India



Dhoom 2

Dil Chahta Hai

Gadar Ek Prem Katha


Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam

Jab We Met

Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham

Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai

Kal Ho Naa Ho

Koi Mil Gaya



Lage Raho Munnabhai

Main Hoon Na

Mangal Pandey

Munnabhai MBBS

Namastey London

Om Shanti Om

Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi

Rang De Basanti

Singh Is Kinng

Taare Zameen Par

Veer Zaara




Following are some famous, critically acclaimed, and award winning Hindi documentaries.

Eka hadasa aura bhi (Documentary about a dam disaster in 1997 in Palamu district of Jharkhand which claimed 19 lives)

Kora raji (Documentary on the struggle of migrants from Jharkhand, working in the tea gardens of North Bengal and Assam)

Loha garama hai (Documentary of people surviving with the environmental threat and toxins produced by the sponge iron industry in Jharkhand, India, a process also known as DRI or direct-reduced iron for the steel industry)

Nalanda, dharohara evam vartamana (Documentary on Nava Nālandā Mahāvihāra, an institution of Pali and Buddhist learning, brought out on the silver jubilee celebrations of the institute; includes description on Nālandā Mahāvihāra Site, India, and Buddhism in Nalanda, India)

Pyara Master (Documentary on the life and works of Pyārā Kerakeṭṭā, 1903-1973, pioneer in education, social reform, and a politician of Jharkhand, India)

Ragih kanah ko bonga buru (Documentary on problems faced by the tribals due to radiation and radioactive wastes from uranium mines in Jadugoda, a small township in Jharkhand, India)
Roro ki abhisapta pahariyam (Documentary on plight of victims of pollution due to asbestos mines in the hills of Ro Ro, Jharkhand in India)

Vikasa banduka ki nala se (This film examines state orchestrated violence against indigenous and local people whenever they protest against development projects on their lands. The filmmakers present examples from all over the India. In each case, the local police force has been deployed to brutalise and even kill protestors, often on trumped up charges of violence)

Morality TV & loving Jihad (The film seeks to understand the emotional impact of the language used in television "exposes" and "breaking" news, the language of desire and surveillance in the backdrop of Operation Majnu, where police officers attacked about 30 couples sitting in a Meerut park for "moral turpitude" which the media covered extensively)

Anwar--dream of a dark night (The film delves into the theme of achieving big dreams from modest backgrouns. The film explores the tenacity of human spirit, by focusing on how a migrant to Delhi achieves his dream of making a theatre in his village by working a range of lowly and menial jobs)
Apna aloo bazaar becha (The film will look at Jardhaargaon, a small village in Tehri Garhwal that leads the Beej Bachao Andolan, a movement that seeks to ensure food security through agricultural bio-diversity and revival of traditional irrigation and natural farming practices. The story will be told through the voices of three generations of its women who have turned this hope into a living realisation through local self-governance)


A Practical Hindi-English Dictionary (by Mahendra Caturvedi.Delhi: National Publishing House, 1970. source: Digital Dictionaries of South Asia by University of Chicago)

Hindi Sabdasagara (11. volumes. edited by Syamasundara Dasa. source: Digital Dictionaries of South Asia by University of Chicago)) (some issues also available from Digital Library of India) [Recommended]

Learners Hindi English Dictionary (by Hardev Bahri. source: Digital Dictionaries of South Asia by University of Chicago))

Hindi Wikipedia (It is a very good source and can be used as an Online Hindi Dictionary and Encyclopedia; type in its search box and sometimes you can get meanings and description of Hindi words not found in other online Hindi dictionaries)

Dictionaries of South Asia (source: Digital Dictionaries of South Asia by University of Chicago)


Hindi Books

Digital Library of India (Full text available ; Use Hindi, language, literature, or other keywords from author, title, or subject, in the search box ; When searched for Hindi, the search matched: 16691 books with 4435374 pages)

Library and Publisher Catalogs for Hindi Books

Search also in the search box on the right side of this portal in OCLC WORLD CATALOG. This will give you bibliographic details of the books on Hindi Language and Literature from the libraries around the globe along with the name of institutions/libraries possessing those books, periodicals, DVD, etc.

OCLC WorldCat

VIAF: The Virtual International Authority File (VIAF is a joint project of several national libraries, implemented and hosted by OCLC. The project's goal is to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking the authority files of national libraries, and then making that information available on the Web)
Search also in the search box given at the bottom. It will show results under three groups: (a) This Blog (b) Linked From Here, and (c) The Web

Delhi Public Library Catalog [Good source: searchable in Devanagari script also; gives detailed information about publisher including its phone number in some cases]

Hindi Book Centre [Distributor and publisher of Hindi books]

Hindi Book Reviews

Hindi Book Reviews on Hindi Newspaper Dainik Jagaran [Search DJ website]

Hindi Book Reviews on Hindikunj

Hindi Book Reviews on Hindi Newspaper Navbharat Times [Search under नयी किताबें under साहित्य संसार section]

Hindi Book Reviews on Hindi Newspaper Deshbandhu [Search under विचार--पुस्तक जगत]

Hindi Google [Search पुस्तक समीक्षा]

Hindi Book Reviews on Hindi Magazine Gaveshna [Check individual issues--Magazine of Kendriya Hindi Sansthan (Central Hindi Directorate)]

Hindi Book Reviews on Hindi Magazine Pustak Varta [Highly recommended--Magazine of Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya]

Hindi Literary News on Hindi Newspaper Dainik Jagaran [Search DJ website]

Hindi Literary News on Hindi Portal of Wikipedia [Search प्रवेशद्वार:हिंदी page, then go to प्रमुख घटनाएँ section ]

Hindi Literary News on Hindi Newspaper Navbharat Times [Search under हलचल under साहित्य संसार section ]

Hindi Google [Search साहित्य समाचार]


Search popular publishers' website under category "Bestsellers" in any year.

Search popular online stores like Amazon, Flipkart under category "Bestsellers" in any year.

Search major book distributors like Hindi Book Center, DK.


Dainik Jagaran ne jari ki Hindi bestseller ki pahli suchi [2017-08-24]


Jātaka Stories - It is a free online searchable database of jātakas in Indian texts and art. In this database, users may browse stories belonging to a variety of Sanskrit and Pali textual collections. Each story in text contains a set of information, including the story’s themes, characters and places; the Sanskrit or Pali full text; and an English translation (where available). Similarly, users may browse artwork belonging to a number of Buddhist sites of ancient India. Each story in art contains a different set of information, including its date, location, visual elements, associated textual stories, corresponding inscription (in Prakrit and English translation, where present), a description of the scene, and an image of the artwork (where available). Many of the data fields are hyperlinks, e.g. themes, characters, places, rebirth identifications and visual elements. Users may click on any of these hyperlinks to explore the stories with which they are associated. In addition to browsing, there are search pages for finding particular textual and visual jātakas. These pages contain a series of filters that, with each addition, gradually narrow the search results. Please note that, at present, the search function for texts has a couple of issues that will be fixed during the first half of 2020 (details of these issues are given in the Search Stories in Text webpage). Finally, users may browse or search for specific story clusters, which group together similar stories in text and art (a concept that is similar to “parallel stories”, though more inclusive). Further expansion of the database is planned, including texts and art from other parts of Asia. We hope that the Jātaka Stories database will be a useful research tool for scholars and will further encourage the study of textual and visual narratives side by side. This project has been generously funded by the Leverhulme Trust. [Source: Indology mailing list]

Persons of Indian Studies by Prof. Dr. Klaus Karttunen - Database of Prof. Dr. Klaus Karttunen´s work Who Was Who of Indian Studies that emphasizes not only classical Indian Studies but also holds a great number of scholars from related fields and subjects including anthropology and archaeology in South Asia as well as Indo-European, ancient Iranian, Central Asian, and Tibetan Studies. The database gives details of Western Indologists who died before 2000.

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