Sunday, December 10, 2017




PRECIS  was intended to be a complete subject statement in a form suitable for a printed bibliography, and this was not necessarily the best format for online searching.

Saturday, December 9, 2017


BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework)

BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework) is a data model for bibliographic description. BIBFRAME was designed to replace the MARC standards, and to use linked data principles to make bibliographic data more useful both within and outside the library community.¹ 

Friday, December 1, 2017

Thursday, November 30, 2017



is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.



(/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data is an anthropologist's handwritten note about his or her interviews with indigenous people. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).

Saturday, November 25, 2017

The Term Library is Made of the Word?

(a) Liber

(b) Libra

(c) Liberae

(d) Libre

Thursday, November 23, 2017

Library of Congress Classification (LCC) History and Development

Library of Congress Classification


The Library of Congress was established in 1800 when the American legislatures were preparing to move from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington, D.C. Its earliest classification system was by size and, within each size group, by accession number. First recorded change in the arrangement of the collection appeared in the library’s third catalog, issued in 1808, which showed added categories for special bibliographic forms such as legal documents and executive papers².

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Research is an effort?

(a) To discover knowledge

(b) To discover and develop knowledge

(c) To verify the knowledge

(d) To discover, develop, and verify knowledge



comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

Friday, November 10, 2017



Z39.50 is a national and international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. It is a client-server, application layer communications protocol for searching and retrieving information from a database over a TCP/IP computer network. It is covered by ANSI/NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The National Information Standards Organization of the United States (NISO) relating to libraries begin with Z39. To use Z39.50, you will need either special software or have an ILS with Z39.50 capabilities. Z39.50 acts like a “back door” into a library catalog. In order to download another library’s records, that library has to allow Z39.50 access to its catalog. If it does, though, there is no fee to pay the library providing the record.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

What is called the use of computers in the functions, activities, and services in libraries?

(a) Library functions

(b) Library operations

(c) Library automation

(d) Automatic library

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Library Automation

Library Automation

Library automation refers to the use of the computer to automate the typical procedures of libraries such as cataloging and circulation.

Tuesday, November 7, 2017

What is a computer?

(a) It is a manual machine

(b) It is a calculating machine

(c) It is an electronic calculating machine

(d) It is a simple machine

Monday, November 6, 2017



A computer is a device for storing, processing, and displaying information. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Saturday, November 4, 2017

What are the three levels of management?

(a) Top, middle, and bottom

(b) Top, middle, and lower

(c) First, second, and third

(d) Primary, secondary, and tertiary

Thursday, October 5, 2017



Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization.

What is information?

(a) Explosion of knowledge

(b) Human knowledge

(c) Process of achieving knowledge

(d) Product of different types of human activities and events

Sunday, October 1, 2017



Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.

Reference service is the personal service to each reader in helping them to find the document - who gave this definition?

(a) M. Hutchins

(b) S. R. Ranganathan

(c) Lois Shores

(d) J. H. Shera

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Reference Service

Reference Service


S. R. Ranganathan defined Reference Service as "A Personal service to each reader in helping him to find the documents answering the interest at the moment pin-pointedly, exhaustively and expeditiously.

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Sunday, September 17, 2017

What is FRBR?

(a) A content designation tool

(b) A data model

(c) A cataloging code or standard

(d) All of above

(e) None of above

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?

Library and Information Science - Did You Know?


Important information and facts to remember covering all the areas of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology related to libraries and library management. This collection of pieces of information in LIS will act not only as a ready reference knowledge bank on Library and Information Science but also be a good tool for appearing in the competitive exams and interviews and keeping updated with the new knowledge for LIS professionals all around the world.

Saturday, September 9, 2017

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR /ˈfɜːrbər/) is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogs and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloging standards such as Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).

What does the acronym FRBR stand for?

(a) Functional Requirements for Better Records

(b) Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

(c) Functional Records for Big Research Libraries

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources

Resource Description and Access RDA

100+ Most Important Resource Description and Access (RDA) Tools and Resources for Cataloging and Metadata Librarians and Catalogers. "Resource Description and Access (RDA) Cataloging Resources" is a collection of top free and paid cataloging and bibliographic metadata resources. 

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

What are the Benefits of RDA?

Resource Description and Access RDA


RDA builds on the strengths of AACR2 but has some new features that make it more useful for description as a cataloging code for the digital environment in which libraries now operate.

Why RDA after AACR2 (not AACR3)

Resource Description and Access RDA


Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Information Management

Information management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.

Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.

Saturday, July 15, 2017

Library Management

Library Management

Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals. Library management encompasses normal managerial tasks, as well as intellectual freedom and fundraising responsibilities. Issues faced in library management frequently overlap with those faced in managing non-profit organizations.

Information Science

Information science is an interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside of the field study application and usage of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science; however, it predates computer science and is a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, commerce, communications, law, library science, museology, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, social sciences, as well as all the fields of study because information exists in all the fields whether it has to do with technology or not. That is why different roles (IT Admin, C.S. engineer, etc.) in Information technology and Computer Science major exist to assist information for all the fields of study.

Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Library Science

Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information. Martin Schrettinger, a Bavarian librarian, coined the discipline within his work (1808-1828) Versuch eines vollständigen Lehrbuchs der Bibliothek-Wissenschaft oder Anleitung zur vollkommenen Geschäftsführung eines Bibliothekars. Rather than classifying information based on nature-oriented elements, as was previously done in his Bavarian library, Schrettinger organized books in alphabetical order. The first American school for library science was founded by Melvil Dewey at Columbia University in 1887. It is an aspect of the broader field of librarianship.



A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Library of Congress Classification: Class Z -- Bibliography. Library Science. Information resources

Library of Congress Classification

Class Z: Bibliography. Library Science. Information resources is a classification used by the Library of Congress Classification system. This page outlines the sub-classes of Class Z.


  • 1Subclass Z - Books (general). Writing. Palaeography. Book Industries and trade. Libraries. Bibliography
  • 2Subclass ZA
  • 3References

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Indexing Languages

Indexing Languages


A system for naming subjects in the way that we have described is called an indexing language, and, like any other language, it will consist of two parts: vocabulary and syntax.

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Citation Indexing

Citation Indexing

A citation index is an ordered list of cited articles along with a list of citing articles. The cited article is identified as the reference and the citing article as the source. The index is prepared utilizing the association of ideas existing between the cited and the citing articles, as the fact is that whenever a recent paper cites a previous paper there always exists a relation of ideas, between the two papers.

Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA)

Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA) Indexing

In the Key-Term Alphabetical (KEYTALPHA) index, keywords are arranged side by side without forming a sentence. Entries are prepared containing only keywords and location excluding the context.

Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC)

Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC) Indexing

In Keyword Augmented in Context (KWAC) the acronym KWAC also stands for Keyword and Context. The KWAC system provides for the enrichment of the keywords of the title with additional significant words taken either from the abstract f the document or its contents. Since titles do not always represent the contents of a document fully, the enrichment minimizes this limitation. The problem of false retrieval, which is inherent in a purely title based indexing system, is solved to some extent.

Keyword Out of Context (KWOC)

Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) Indexing

In Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system, keyword or the access point is shifted to the extreme left at its normal place in the beginning of the line. It is followed by the complete title to provide complete context. The keyword and the context are written either in the same line or in two successive lines. Both the formats are displayed below.

Title-Based Indexing

Title-Based Indexing


There is one part of a document in which authors themselves usually try to define the subject: the title. The title in itself is a one-line summary of a document and this serves as an index point, hence, title indexes came into force. This is very simple as the important terms representing the subject of the document are selected and rotated to prepare entries from the title, moreover, this could be very easily prepared using a computer. Examples of title indexes are KWIC (Key Word In Context, KWOC (Keyword Out of Content), and KEYTALPHA (Key-Term Alphabetical).

Friday, January 6, 2017

RDA Cataloging News and Bibliography

Resource Description and Access RDA

Where Is the Information for RDA Cataloguing News and New Articles Books Presentations Theses and Videos on Resource Description and Access? 

Sunday, January 1, 2017

Statement of International Cataloguing Principles


STATEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUING PRINCIPLES (ICP) 2016 by IFLA Cataloguing Section and IFLA Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code