Sunday, September 20, 2015

Information Access Through The Subject

Information Access Through The Subject

Information Access Through The Subject : An Annotated Bibliography / by Salman Haider. - Online : OpenThesis, 2015. (408 pages ; 23 cm.)

Annotated bibliography titled Information Access Through The Subject covering Subject Indexing, Subject Cataloging, Classification, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Subject Approaches in Bibliographic and Non Bibliographic Databases etc.

The project "annotated bibliography" was worked out as Master of Library & Information Science (MLIS) dissertation under the supervision of Professor Shabahat Husain, Chairman, Department of Library and Information Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, in 2002. Information Access Through The Subject is a very much appreciated work. It earned the author S. Bashiruddin – P. N. Kaula Gold Medal, Post Graduate Merit Scholarship, First Division, and IInd Position in the MLIS program.  

The contents of this MLIS Thesis will appear as individual posts of Librarianship Studies Blog: 

Saturday, September 19, 2015

EDTF Date - 046 - RDACataloging Examples

Resource Description & Access RDA

When supplying dates in field 046, use the Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) schema in all cases except for centuries; supply dates using the pattern yyyy, yyyy-mm, or yyyy-mm-dd; always add subfield $2 edtf except after a century. The more consistent use of $2 edtf is based on a PCCLIST discussion suggestion to simplify the use of $2 (always use except for centuries). Visit above RDA Blog link to read complete article.

Friday, September 18, 2015

Salman Haider Author - Facebook Page

I have created a Facebook Page "Salman Haider Author

I am using this to share and communicate and discuss my writings on Librarianship Studies and Information Technology, Library and Information Science, Resource Description and Access - RDA, Library Cataloging, Library Classification, Subject Headings, Information Access Through The Subject, Library Management, etc. I write seven Blogs on Library and Information Science Some of these have their own Facebook Pages. 

I will also post here items which are not covered by RDA BlogLibrarianship Studies and Information Technology Blog, and Information Access Through The Subject Blog.

"LIKE" THIS PAGE if you wish to be updated about my research writings on Library and Information Science and Information Technology.

I will stop sharing professional communication from my personal Facebook profile after some time; so it is better that you connect with me on Facebook by making a "Like" to my page "Salman Haider Author".

Visit and "Like" this page to connect to me.

You can also "communicate" with me on this page on issues and queries related to library and information science and related information technology.


Thursday, September 3, 2015

Subject Heading

Subject Heading

Subject Heading is defined as the most specific word or group of words that captures the essence of the subject or one of the subjects of a book or other library material (e.g. serial, sound recording, moving image, cartographic material, manuscript, computer file, e-resource etc.) which is selected from a subject heading list containing the preferred subject access terms (controlled vocabulary) and assigned as an added entry in the bibliographic record which works as an access point and enables the work to be searched and retrieved by subject from the library catalog database. Subject headings are also used in a bibliography and index.

The controlled vocabulary identifies synonyms terms and selects one preferred term among them to be used as the subject heading. For homonyms, it explicitly identifies the multiple concepts expressed by that word or phrase. In short, vocabulary control helps in overcoming problems that occur due to the natural language of the document’s subject. Hence, if vocabulary control is not exercised different indexers or the same indexer might use different terms for the same concept on different occasions for indexing the documents dealing with the same subject and also use a different set of terms for representing the same subject at the time of searching. This, in turn, would result in ‘mis-match’ and thus affect information retrieval. Cross-references are used with headings to direct the user from terms not used as headings to the term that is used, and from broader and related topics to the one chosen to represent a given subject.

A subject heading may be subdivided by the addition of form subdivisions, geographical subdivisions, chronological subdivisions, and topical subdivisions to add greater specificity or add a parenthetical qualifier to add semantic clarification.

Two popular subject heading lists are Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and Sears List of Subject Headings.

Examples based on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) following principles of assigning subject headings as described in Subject Headings Manual of Library of Congress:

English literature—20th century—History and criticism.
Construction industry—United States.
India—History—Autonomy and independence movements.
Piano music (Jazz)—France—History.
Aging—Egypt—Psychological aspects.

Following is an example of LCSH heading “Hotels” from Library of Congress Linked Data Service



Hotels, taverns, etc

Broader Terms
Hospitality industry

Narrower Terms
All-suite hotels
Allergen-free accommodations
Bed and breakfast accommodations
Gay accommodations
Haunted hotels
Historic hotels
Hotel chains
Hotel lobbies
Imaginary hotels
Nonsmoking accommodations
Park lodging facilities
Safari lodges
Single-room occupancy hotels
Tourist camps, hostels, etc

Related Terms
Taverns (Inns)

Earlier Established Forms
Hotels, taverns, etc

LC Classification

Subject headings, like access points based on author names and titles, serve the dual function of location and collocation. Subject heading lists are used by library catalogers to aid them in their choice of appropriate subject headings and to achieve uniformity. Subject headings and thesauri are one of the two methods used to facilitate subject access to library materials. The other is library classification. Classification organizes knowledge and library materials into a systematic order according to their subject content, while subject headings provide access to documents through vocabulary terms. Subject Headings or Thesauri can assign multiple terms to the same document, but in classification, each document can only be placed in one class.

In a MARC bibliographic record subject heading is given in a 6XX field, consisting of either a single element in an $a subfield or of an $a subfield followed by subdivisions in $v, $x, $y, and/or $z subfields, that designates what a work is or what it is about. 

  • Index Term
  • Subject Headings
  • Subject Term


  • Salman Haider - Librarian Cataloger Author Blogger

  • Last Updated: 2018-05-25
  • Written: 2015-09-03

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